نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
گروه بافتشناسی و میکروبیولوژی، دانشکده پیرادامپزشکی، دانشگاه ایلام، ایلام، ایران.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Introduction To characterize the affection of tempo and temperature with chill and without chill, as storeroom status for fecund eggs formerly to their incubation, you have to resort to a series of processes. What starts as a fertile egg on the breeder farm must end up being a healthy chick on the broiler farm. After the hen lays the egg, its quality can only worsen, it will never be the same, so we must pay attention to the transit between the laying of the hatching egg and the start of the incubation. Most of the causes that can influence the variability of hatchability or quality losses of the chick are caused by inadequate management of the egg handling processes before being hatched. Inadequate temperature and humidity control generally produce poor results. Inadequate control means that the temperature or humidity is too high or too low for long enough to interfere with the normal growth and development of the embryo. Poor results are also given due to inadequate ventilation, the inappropriate egg turns, and poor sanitation of machines or eggs. Obtain the best hatching by maintaining the temperature at 37.7 ◦C throughout the incubation period when using a forced-air incubator. Minor temperature fluctuations (less than ½ degree) above or below 37.7 ◦C are tolerated but do not allow temperatures to vary more than one degree. Prolonged periods of high or low temperatures will alter hatching success. High temperatures are especially dangerous. A forced-air incubator that is too hot tends to hatch early. One that is kept constantly cold tends to produce late hatching. In both cases the number of chicks that hatch will be reduced. Keep the air incubator still at 38.8 ◦C to compensate for temperature stratification within the incubator. Obtain the proper temperature reading by raising the thermometer bulb to the same height as the top of the eggs, when the eggs are placed horizontally. If the eggs are placed upright, raise the thermometer bulb to a point that is 0.6 to 1.2 cm and below the top of the eggs. Temperature is measured at the level where the embryos develop (at the top of the egg). Do not allow the thermometer bulb to touch the eggs or the incubator.
Materials and Methods A total of 720 eggs were taken at accidental from one-day operation. . There were also questions about the health and management of laying hens, including nutrition, disease and vaccination. In Ilam province, there is no hatchery and laying hen factory for hatching purposes. Behind having been chosen by their exterior characteristic and weight, the eggs were divided into 2 cures, previously the storeroom: In each cure, there were organized three groups of 120 eggs each, with 4, 7 and 10 days of storeroom respectively.
Results and Discussion The biological control took away: 1st inspection, at 6 days and 2nd inspection at 11 days (embryonic fatality, embryos with patulous, allantoides and embryos with shut allantoides) incubation ultimate, consequences. The consequences exhibit, that as for the embryonic fatality, the best conduct was made at the 4 days of the storeroom with the chill. The higher values communicated, to 10 days of storeroom without the chill. The best consequences for the prime category, chicks and whole born were in group one. Improper management in the use of incubators was another factor that contributed to the decline in the birth of first-class chicks. These defects in the work management of the incubator reflected high mortality between the ages of five and 18 days. In this case, as shown in table (3), fetal mortality rates on the 11th day were significantly lower and no significant differences were observed between them.
Conclusion It was concluded that storeroom without chill during 4 days touch to 5.5% the prime category, chicks taking. The eggs storeroom during 7 and 10 days without chill borne victims for the significance of embryonic fatality, of 20.5% and 75.8% respectively. Keeping fertilized eggs at normal room temperature during the first four days that caused fetal mortality in the first stage of incubation was up to five and a half percent effective in obtaining first-class chicks. We can use various techniques to make a “clean” egg look like, but what we do is risk making things worse. Sandpaper, sponges, damp cloths are used on farms to make them look clean but quickly contaminated. So we just make them look clean In addition to contaminating them, we cover pores, making the incubation process more difficult for the embryo. Laying or dirty eggs that are washed present hatch rates of up to 20% less than those that are clean and up to 7 times more chick mortality at the end of the first week.
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