1- Ahnert, S., U. Dickhoefer, F. Schulz, and A. Susenbeth. 2015. Influence of ruminal quebracho tannin extract infusion on apparent nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance, and urinary purine derivatives excretion in heifers. Livestock Science, 177:63-70.
2- Al-Dobaib, S. N. 2009. Effect of different levels of quebracho tannin on nitrogen utilization and growth performance of Najdi sheep fed alfalfa (Medicago sativa) hay as a sole diet. Animal Science Journal, 80:532–541.
3- Animut, G., A. L. Goetsch, R. Puchala, A. K. Patra, T. Sahlu, and V. H. Varel. 2008. Methane emission by goats consuming different sources of condensed tannins. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 144:228–241.
4- Association of Ofﬁcial Analytical Chemists (AOAC). 2005. Official Methods of Analysis, 18th ed. AOAC international, Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA.
5- Beauchemin, K. A., S. M. McGinn, T. F. Martinez, and T. A. McAllister. 2007. Use of condensed tannin extract from quebracho trees to reduce methane emissions from cattle. Journal of Animal Science, 85:1990–1996.
6- Benchaar, C., T. A. McAllister, and P. Y. Chouinard. 2008. Digestion, ruminal fermentation, ciliate protozoal populations, and milk production from dairy cows fed cinnamaldehyde, quebracho condensed tannin, or Yucca schidigera saponin extracts. Journal of Dairy Science, 91:4765-4777.
7- Bhatta, R., A. K. Shinde, D. L. Verma, S. K. Sankhyan, and S. Vaithiyanathan. 2004. Effect of supplementation containing polyethylene glycol (PEG)-6000 on intake, rumen fermentation pattern and growth in kids fed foliage of Prosopis cineraria. Small Ruminant Research, 52:45–52.
8- Bohluli, A., A. A. Naserian, R. Valizadeh, and F. E. Shahroodi. 2007. The chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of pistachio by-product. ‘In Proceedings of British Society of Animal Science’. p. 224. (BSAS:Scarborough, UK).
9- Bohluli, A., A. A. Naserian, R. Valizadeh, and F. E. Shahroodi. 2009. The Effect of Pistachio by-Product on Nutrient Apparent Digestibility, Rumination Activity and Performance of Holstein Dairy Cows in Early Lactation. Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources, 13:167-179. (In Persian).
10- Cardozo, P. W., S. Calsamiglia, A. Ferret, and C.Kamel. 2004. Effects of natural plant extracts on ruminal protein degradation and fermentation profiles in continuous culture. Journal of Animal Science, 82:3230-3236.
11- Carter, R. R., and W. L. Grovum. 1990. A review of the physiological significance of hypertonic body fluids on feed intake and ruminal function: Salivation, motility and microbes. Journal of Animal Science, 68:2811–2832.
12- Carulla, J. E., M. Kreuzer, A. Machmüller, and H. D. Hess. Supplementation of Acacia mearnsii tannins decreases methanogenesis and urinary nitrogen in forage-fed sheep. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 56: 961–970.
13- Dickhoefer, U., S. Ahnert, and A. Susenbeth. 2016. Effects of quebracho tannin extract on rumen fermentation and yield and composition of microbial mass in heifers. Journal of Animal Science, 94.
14- Dschaak, C. M., C. M. Williams, M. S. Holt, J. S. Eun, A. J. Young, and B. R. Min. 2011. Effects of supplementing condensed tannin extract on intake, digestion, ruminal fermentation, and milk production of lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 94:2508–2519.
15- FAO, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2015. Website: http://www.faostat.fao.org.
16- Frutos, P., G. Hervas, F. J. Giraldez, M. Fernandez, and A. R. Mantecon. 2000. Digestive utilization of quebracho-treated soya bean meals in sheep. Journal of Agricultural Science, 134:101-108.
17- Ghasemi, S., A. A. Naserian, R. Valizadeh, A. R. Vakili, A. M. Tahmasebi, and S. Ghovvati. 2012a. Partial and total substitution of alfalfa hay by pistachio byproduct modulated the counts of selected cellulolytic ruminal bacteria attached to alfalfa hay in sheep. Livestock Science, 150:342-348.
18- Ghasemi, S., A. A. Naserian, R. Valizadeh, A. M. Tahmasebi, A. R. Vakili, and M. Behgar. 2012b. Effects of pistachio by-product in replacement of lucerne hay on microbial protein synthesis and fermentative parameters in the rumen of sheep. Animal Production Science. 52: 1052–1057.
19- Gholizadeh, H., A. A. Naserian, , R. Valizadeh, and A. M. Tahmasbi. 2010. Effect of feeding pistachio by product on performance and blood metabolites in Holstein dairy cows. International journal of agriculture & biology, 12:867–870.
20- Grasser, L. A., J. Garneit, and E. J. Depeters. 1995. Quantity and Economic Importance of Nine Selected By-products Used in California Dairy Rations. Journal of Dairy Science, 78:962-971.
21- Jones, G. A., T. A. McAllister, A. D. Muir, and K. J. Cheng. 1994. Effects of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) condensed tannins on growth and proteolysis by four strains of ruminal bacterium. Applied Environment Microbiology, 60:1374–1378.
22- Komolong, M. K., D. G. Barber, and D. M. McNeill. 2001. Post-ruminal protein supply and N retention of weaner sheep fed on a basal diet of lucerne hay (Medicago sativa) with increasing levels of quebracho tannins. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 92:59–72.
23- Kumar, R., and M. Singh. 1984. Tannins: Their adverse role in ruminant nutrition. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 32:447-453.
24- Labavitch, J. M., C. M. Heintz, H. L. Rae, and A. A. Kader. 1982. Physiological and compositional changes associated with maturation of Kerman pistachio. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 107:688-692.
25- Makkar, H. P. S. 2003a. Effects and fate of tannins in ruminant animals, adaptation to tannins, and strategies to overcome detrimental effects of feeding tannin-rich feeds. Small Ruminant Research, 49:241–256.
26- Makkar, H. P. S. 2003b. Quantification of tannins in tree and shrubs foliages – a laboratory manual. Kluwer Academic. Press Dordrecht, The Netherland, p.102.
27- Makkar, H. P. S., B. Singh, and R. K. Dawra. 1988. Effect of tannin-rich leaves of oak (Quercus incana) on various microbial enzyme activities of the bovine rumen. British Journaf of Nutrition, 60:287-296.
28- McNabb, W. C., J. S. Peters, L. Yeap Foo, G. C. Waghorn, and F. S. Jackson. 1998. Effect of condensed tannins prepared from several forages on the in vitro precipitation of ribulose-1,5- bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco) protein and its digestion by trypsin (EC 18.104.22.168) and chymotrypsin (EC 22.214.171.124). Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 77:201-212.
29- McSweeny, C. S., B. Palmer, D. M. McNeill, and D. O. Krause. 2001. Microbial interaction with tannin: nutritional consequences for ruminants. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 91:83-93.
30- Messman, M. A., W. Weiss, and K. A. Albrecht. 1996. In situ disappearance of individual proteins and nitrogen from legume forages containing varying amounts of tannins. Journal of Dairy Science, 79:1430– 1435.
31- Min, B. R., T. N. Barry, G. T. Attwood, and W. C. McNabb. 2003. The effect of condensed tannins on the nutrition and health of ruminants fed fresh temperate forages: a review. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 106:3–19.
32- Mokhtarpour, A., A. A. Naserian, A. M. Tahmasbi, and R. Valizadeh. 2012. Effect of feeding pistachio by-products silage supplemented with polyethylene glycol and urea on Holstein dairy cows performance in early lactation. Livestock Science, 148:208–213.
33- Mokhtarpour, A., A. A. Naserian, R. Valizadeh, M. Danesh Mesgaran, and F. Pourmollae. 2014. Extraction of Phenolic Compounds and Tannins from Pistachio By-products. Annual Research & Review in Biology, 4:1330-1338.
34- National Research Council (NRC). 2007. Nutrient Requirements of Small Ruminants. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
35- Norton, B. W., and J. H. Ahn. 1997. A comparison of fresh and dried Calliandra calothyrsus supplements for sheep given a basal diet of barley straw. Journal of Agricultural Science, 129:485-494.
36- Nsahlai, I. V., F. N. Fon, and N. A. D. Basha. 2011. The effect of tannin with and without polyethylene glycol on in vitro gas production and microbial enzyme activity. South African Journal of Animal Science, 41:337-344.
37- Ottenstein, D. M., and D. A. Batler. 1971. Imoroved gas chromatography separation of free acids C2-C5 in dilute solution. Analytical Chemistry, 43:952-955.
38- Patra, A. K., and J. Saxena. 2011. Exploitation of dietary tannins to improve rumen metabolism and ruminant nutrition. Journal of Science Food and Agriculture, 91: 24–37.
39- Porter, L. J., L. N. Hrstich, and B. G. Chan. 1986. The conversion of procyanidins and prodelphinidins to cyanidin and delphinidin. Phytochemistry, 25:223–230.
40- Rahimi, A., A. A. Naserian, R. Valizadeh, A. M. Tahmasebi, and A. shahdadi. 2013. Effect of replacing hay by different levels of pistachio shells on feed consumption, nutrients digestibility, rumen fermentation parameters, blood metabolites and nitrogen balance in Baluchi male sheep. Iranian Journal of Animal Science, 5(3):190-200. (In Persian).
41- SAS Institute Inc. 2001. SAS/STAT User's Guide: Version 9.1. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, North Carolina.
42- Scalbert, A. 1991. Antimicrobial properties of tannins. Phytochemistry, 30:3875-3883.
43- Schofild, P., D. M. Mbugua, and A. N. Pell. 2001. Analysis of condensed tannins: a review. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 91:21–40.
44- Seyd momen, S. M. 2003. The effects of residual levels of pistachio peeling and its tannin on body growth and hair production in Rayini goats. Animal Science Master's thesis. Islamic Azad University of Karaj. (In Persian).
45- Shakeri, P., A. Riasi, M. Alikhani, H. Fazaeli, and G. R. Ghorbani. 2013. Effects of feeding pistachio by-products silage on growth performance, serum metabolites and urine characteristics in Holstein male calves. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 97:1022–1029.
46- Shakeri, P., M. H. Ghaffari, and H. Fazaeli. 2017. Pistachio by-product as a forage feed in ruminants feeding - overview article. Animal Science Journal (Pajouhesh & Sazandegi), 112:129-144. (In Persian).
47- Silanikove, N., A. Perevolotsky, and F. D. Provenza. 2001. Use of tannin-binding chemicals to assay for tannins and their negative post-ingestive effects in ruminants. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 91:69–81.
48- Sliwinski, B. J., C. R. Soliva, A. Machmu¨ ller, and M. Kreuzer. 2002. Efficacy of plant extracts in secondary constituents to modify rumen fermentation. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 101:101–104.
49- Tiemann, T. T., C. E. Lascano, H. R. Wettstein, A. C. Mayer, M. Kreuzer, and H. D. Hess. 2008. Effectof thetropical tannin-richshrublegumesCalliandra calothyrsus and Flemingia macrophylla on methane emission and nitrogen and energy balance in growing lambs. Animal, 2:790–799.
50- Toral P. G., G. Hervas, A. Belenguer, E. Bichi, and P. Frutos. 2013. Effect of the inclusion of quebracho tannins in a diet rich in linoleic acid on milk fatty acid composition in dairy ewes. Journal of Dairy Science, 96:431-439.
51- Vahmani, P., A. A. Naserian, R. Valizadea, and H. Nasiri Moghadam. 2006. Nutritive value of Pistachio by-products and their effects on Holstein cows in mid lactation. Agricultural Science and Technology, 20:201-210.
52- Valkeners, D., A. Thewis, S. Amant, and Y. Beckers. 2006. Effect of various levels of imbalance between energy and nitrogen release in the rumen on microbial protein synthesis and nitrogen metabolism in growing double-muscled Belgian Blue bulls fed a corn silage-based diet. Journal of Animal Science, 84:877–885.
53- Van Soest, P. J., J. B. Robertson, and B. A. Lewis. 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber and non starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science, 74:3583–3597.
54- Vasta, V., A. Nudda, A. Cannas, M. Lanza, and A. Priolo. 2008. Alternative feed resources and small ruminants meat and milk quality. A review. Animal Feed Scince and Technology, 147:223–246.
55- Voelker, J. A., and M. S. Allen. 2003. Pelleted beet pulp substituted for high-moisture corn: 2. Effects on digestion and ruminal digestion kinetics in lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 86:3553-3561.
56- Vogels G. D., W. F. Hoppe, and C. K. Stumm. 1980. Association of methanogenic bacteria with rumen. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 40(3):608-612
57- Waghorn, G. C. 2008. Beneﬁcial and detrimental effects of dietary condense tannins for sustainable sheep and goat production – progress and challenges. Anialm Feed Science and Technology, 147:116–139.
58- Waghorn, G. C., I. D. Shelton, W. C. McNabb, and S. N. McCutcheon. 1994. Effects of condensed tannin in Lotus pedunculatus on nutritive value for sheep. 2. Nitrogenous aspects. Journal of Agricultural Science (Cambridge), 123:109–119.
59- Weatherburn, M. W. 1967. Phenol-hypochlorite reaction for determination of ammonia. Analytical Chemistry, 39:971–974.
ارسال نظر در مورد این مقاله