عنوان مقاله [English]
Introduction: The agro-industrial processing was resulted some wastes as vegetable and fruit by-products. The fruit byproducts use as energy sources in animal feed and using of these by-products are economically and environmentally sound way for food processors to reduce waste discharges and cut waste management cost. Selling by-products can also produce additional revenue. The poor state of economy in developing countries has made consumption of high protein foods out of reach of more than 65-70% of the people. One of the ways of solving this problem is use unconventional sources of feed ingredients to supplement the diets of man and farm animals. Fruit pulps are some of these unconventional feedstuffs. Pulps contain some of essential nutrients and secondary substances those can be use as feed ingredients in poultry diets. As pulps contain highly amount of undesirable compounds such as crude fiber and pectin, that poultry digestive tract cannot tolerate highly amount of them, imagine that adding effective feed enzyme can be solve this problem. In the current study the effects of different levels of pomegranate, grape, apple and lemon pulps mixture with and without multi-enzyme on performance, carcass traits, immune response and intestinal morphology of broilers was evaluated.
Materials and Methods: This experiment was conducted with 384 Ross- 308 broilers in a completely randomized design as factorial arrangement (4*2) with 4 levels of pulps mixture (0, 2, 4, 6%) and 2 levels of Rovabio multi-enzyme (0, 0.05%) in 8 treatments, 4 replicates and 12 chicken in per replicate from 10 up 42 days in grower (11-24 days) and finisher (25-42 days).
Results and Discussion: Using 6% of pulps mixture and 6% of pulps mixture with 0.05% of multi- enzyme without having any significant effects on feed conversion ratio, livability and feed cost, increased the amounts of feed intake, weight gain, final live weight and production index (P<0.05). Using 6% pulps mixture significantly increased the percentage of gizzard (P<0.05). Multi- enzyme and pulps mixtures with multi-enzyme had not affect the carcass traits of broilers (P>0.05). By using pulps mixture, the level of IgG decreased (P<0.05) but pulps mixture with multi-enzyme had not significantly affect the immune level of broilers (P>0.05). Pulps mixture and multi-enzyme had not any significant effects on intestinal morphology of broilers (P>0.05). Increase in the amount of daily feed intake by using 6% of pulps mixture may be related to high amount of diet fiber. Fiber increase the speed of feed passing through digestive tract, by this way the amount of feed intake increased. By increasing the amount of feed intake, the amount of nutrient supplying increased and the amount of daily weight gain improved. As improving of weight gain was obtained by feeding highly amount of feed intake, for this reason feed conversion ratio not significantly improved. Improve of final weight and production index by using 6% of pulps mixture may be related to highly amount of daily weight gain. Increase of gizzard percentage maybe related to the amount of diet fiber. As fiber increased the volume of diet, it can increase the gizzard size. Pulps contain some active antioxidant compounds such as flavonoids, isoflavones, flavones, anthocyanins, coumarins. It thought that these compounds can increase the immune level of chickens, but this condition in the current study not occurred. It can be have some reasons such as kinds and levels of pulps in mixture, the quality and processing of pulps, the health status of broilers and diets ingredients. Pulps contains some actives that these actives can change the intestinal morphology, but this change not occurred in the current study, it may be related to the amount of each pulp in pulps mixture, length of experiment period and experiment starting time. Adding enzyme to the diets did not have any significant effects on performance and other parameters of broilers. It can have some reasons such as the amount and composition of multi-enzyme, quality of multi-enzyme, mixing time of diets, diets other ingredients and bird health.
Conclusion: The overall results of the present study showed that in broiler chickens using 6% pomegranate, grape, apple and lemon pulps mixture without having any significant effects on intestinal morphology, can improve their performance, final live weight and production index. Using multi-enzyme could not improve the efficacy of pulps mixtures in broiler diets.