تعیین ارزش تغذیه‌ای هفت گونه از علف‌های هرز مزارع یونجه با استفاده از روش‌های آزمایشگاهی

نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی - تغذیه نشخوارکنندگان

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه تبریز

2 گروه علوم دامی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تبریز

چکیده

هدف از انجام این تحقیق تعیین ارزش غذایی هفت گونه از علف‌های هرز موجود در مزارع یونجه شامل: تلخه، بومادران و ریش قوش از خانواده کاسنی، یونجه و شبدرشیرین از خانواده بقولات و دم روباهی، علف پشمکی و علف باغ از خانواده گندمیان بود. نمونه‌برداری از گونه‌های مورد مطالعه در مرحله برداشت یونجه از مزرعه (10% گلدهی مزرعه) صورت گرفت. نمونه‌های برداشت شده در مزرعه به مدت 72 ساعت هوا خشک شده و برای انجام آزمایشات مورد استفاده قرار گرفت. ترکیبات شیمیایی، تخمیرپذیری و تجزیه‌پذیری نمونه‌ها با روش آزمایشگاهی تعیین شد. نتایج نشان داد که در بین گونه‌های مورد مطالعه از نظر ترکیبات شیمیایی تفاوت‌های معنی‌داری وجود داشت. یونجه با 3/14و دم‌روباهی با 4/8 درصد بیشترین و کمترین مقدار پروتئین خام را در بین علوفه‌های مورد آزمایش داشتند. بیشترین و کمترین میزان دیواره سلولی مربوط به دم روباهی و شبدرشیرین به ترتیب با 7/58 و 8/33 درصد بود. ریش قوش و تلخه به ترتیب با 8/28 و 5/19 درصد بیشترین و کمترین میزان دیواره سلولی منهای همی سلولز را در بین گونه‌های مورد مطالعه داشتند. با مقایسه میزان گاز تولیدی حاصل از تخمیر علف‌های هرز و یونجه در 96 ساعت پس از انکوباسیون، یونجه و علف پشمکی به ترتیب با 7/249 و 4/166 میلی‌لیتر به ازای هر گرم ماده خشک، بیشترین و کمترین میزان گاز تولیدی را به خود اختصاص دادند. در بین علوفه‌های مورد آزمایش بیشترین مقدار قابلیت هضم ماده آلی و اسیدهای چرب کوتاه زنجیر مربوط به یونجه و شبدرشیرین بود. ناپدید شدن ماده خشک برای شبدر شیرین در ساعات مختلف انکوباسیون بیشتر از بقیه گونه‌ها بود. علف پشمکی کمترین میزان ناپدید شدن را در بین گونه‌های مورد مطالعه داشت. شبدر شیرین و علف پشمکی با 6/32 و 2/23 درصد به ترتیب بیشترین و کمترین مقدار بخش سریع تجزیه‌پذیر ماده خشک را در بین علوفه‌ها داشتند. بخش با پتانسیل تجزیه‌پذیری کم و نرخ ناپدید شدن ماده خشک برای شبدر شیرین بیشتر از بقیه علوفه‌ها به جز یونجه بود. نتیجه کلی اینکه تفاوت بین ترکیبات شیمیایی، پتانسیل تولید گاز و تجزیه‌پذیری یونجه در مقایسه با علف‌های هرز بایستی در تنظیم جیره‌های غذایی نشخوارکنندگان مدنظر قرار گیرد اما آنچه مسلم است ارزش غذایی یونجه با توجه به نتایج به‌دست آمده قابل مقایسه با علف‌های هرز نمی‌باشد

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Determination of Nutritive Value of Seven Species of Alfalfa Weeds Using in vitro Techniques

نویسندگان [English]

  • Maliheh Dadashi 1
  • Ali Hossein khani 2
  • Hamid Mohammadzadeh 1
1 University Of Tabriz
2 Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Weeds constantly invade crop fields and pastures. It is frequently assumed that weeds have low nutritive value and livestock will not eat weeds, so expensive and time consuming methods are often used for their control. Some weeds are toxic or poisonous for livestock, and certain weeds are unpalatable – causing a reduction in total intake. Weeds also compete with cultivated crops and forages for moisture, light, and nutrients, but many weeds are nutrient-rich and digestible. There are large numbers of weeds which are consumed by animals as forage. A study with geographic information system (GIS) in the east Azerbaijan province of Iran, showed that Bromus tectorum,Crepis sancta, Alopecurus myosuroides, Dactylis glomerata and Acroptilon repens were found in 77.8, 66.7, 67.7, 33.3 and 22.2 percent of alfalfa fields respectively. Based on this report only five species of the mentioned weeds consist of about 15 percent of total forages production area at the first cut of alfalfa fields which are harvested and used in the farms as livestock feed. Nonetheless, preliminary results suggest that weeds can play a significant role in livestock industry if their chemical composition and nutritional quality is well known. The main goal of present study was to evaluate nutritional value of seven common species of alfalfa field weeds using in vitro techniques.
Material and methods: Seven species of alfalfa field weeds including: Crepis sancta, Achillea millefolium and Acroptilon repens from family of Asteraceae, Melilotus officinalis (L.) Pall. from family of Fabaceae and Bromus tectorum, Dactylis glomerata and Alopecurus myosuroides from family of poaceae were harvested from alfalfa field at 10 percent blooming. The samples were dried in 60° oven for 48 hours and grounded to pass through a 2-mm screen. Chemical composition of weeds was determined according to prescribed procedures of AOAC (2003). Neutral detergent finer (NDF) was measured by method of Van-Soest et al. 1991. Rumen fluid was obtained from three fistulated ghezel male lambs before morning feeding. The lambs were fed twice daily at maintenance level. Dry matter fermentation of each weed was determined using in vitro gas production technique. Potential of gas production, organic matter digestibility, small chain fatty acid production and net energy of lactation (NEl) were calculated from the results of gas production. In vitro disappearance of forages was measured.
Result and discussion: Alfalfa and Alopecurus myosuroides had the highest and lowest crude protein (CP) content respectively (14.3 vs 8.4 %) (P

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Alfalfa field weeds
  • chemical composition
  • degradation
  • in vitro digestibility
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