اجزای ترکیبات فنولی غلاف نخود سبز (.Pisum sativum L) و اثرات آنها بر قابلیت هضم شکمبه‌ای و تولید گاز تحت شرایط آزمایشگاهی

نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی - تغذیه نشخوارکنندگان

نویسندگان

محقق اردبیلی

چکیده

هدف آزمایش حاضر برآورد کمی اثر تانن و ترکیبات فنولی غلاف نخود سبز (.Pisum sativum L) بر قابلیت هضم شکمبه‌ای با روش‌های آزمایشگاهی بود. در این بررسی از ترکیب پلی اتیلن گلیکول (PEG) عامل غیر فعال و کمپلکس کننده تانن و ترکیبات فنولی به صورت افزودنی در سطوح توصیه شده استفاده شد. داده‌های حاصل در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی تجزیه و تحلیل شدند. ترکیبات شیمیایی غلاف نخود سبز شامل ماده خشک، پروتئین خام، چربی خام، ماده‌ آلی، خاکستر خام، الیاف نا محلول در شوینده‌‌ خنثی NDF)) و الیاف نا محلول در شوینده‌‌ اسیدی ((ADF به ترتیب 53/87، 03/10، 5/2، 49/79، 046/8، 31/40 و 69/23 درصد اندازه‌گیری شدند. فنل کل همراه با تانن، فنل کل بدون تانن، تانن کل و تانن متراکم به ترتیب 502/0 ،196/0، 306/0 و 044/0 بر حسب گرم در کیلو‌گرم ماده خشک به دست آمد. قابلیت هضم ماده خشک، ماده آلی، ماده آلی در ماده خشک (درصد) و انرژی قابل متابولیسم (مگاژول بر کیلو‌گرم) در غلاف نخود سبز به ترتیب 06/81، 46/80، 98/73 و 61/11 بود. پس از انکوباسیون نمونه خشک غلاف نخود سبز مقادیر تولید گاز در زمان‌های 2، 4، 8، 12، 24، 48، 72 و 96 ساعت، میزان گاز بخش نا محلول اما قابل تخمیر گروه کنترل (16/75 میلی‌لیتر) در مقایسه با سایر تیمارها مشابه بوده و بین آنها تفاوت معنی‌دار نبود. همچنین ثابت نرخ تولید گاز در گروه کنترل (086/0) برابر و بدون اختلاف معنی‌دار با تیمار حاوی 200 میلی‌‌گرم PEG و تیمارهای حاوی 400 میلی‌گرم PEG (082/0) و600 میلی‌گرم PEG (079/0) بود. گاز تولیدی از بخش نا محلول اما قابل تخمیر (b) در غلاف نخود سبز با سطوح افزایشی PEG مشابه با گروه کنترل (85/73 میلی‌لیتر) بود. در اثر عمل‌آوری و مکمل‌سازی این خوراک با پلی اتیلن گلیکول در مقدار گاز حاصل از بخش محلول، بخش نا محلول و مجموع تولید گاز از بخش محلول و نا محلول در غلاف نخود سبز تفاوت معنی‌دار مشاهده نشد (p>0/05). با توجه به مقدار پروتئین خام غلاف نخود که حدود ۵۰ درصد پروتئین خام دانه نخود می‌باشد و مقادیر ترکیبات دیواره سلولی و پتانسیل تولید گاز آن در این تحقیق غلاف نخود سبز را می‌توان به‌عنوان منبع فیبر غیر علوفه‌ای و مواد خوراکی ارزان قیمت جایگزین بخشی از مواد خوراکی اصلی در جیره دام‌ها نمود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Green Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Pods Phenolic Components and Their Effects on in Vitro Ruminal Digestibility and in Vitro Gas Production

نویسندگان [English]

  • Jamal Seifdavati
  • zahra Islami
  • Hossein Abdi Benamar
  • farzad Mirzaei Aghjeh Qeshlagh
  • reza Seyed Sharifi
Mohaghegh Ardabili
چکیده [English]

Introduction Agricultural by-products are the main feed sources for feeding livestock under conditions of feed restriction. However, phenolic compounds and tannins may limit use of some of them. Optimum utilization of agricultural by-products, needs adequate information about the animals needs, and access to nutritious feed used by livestockin order to determine the nutritional value and palatability, as well as limiting factors in feed such as phenolic compounds. Byproduct after harvesting peas (green peas) that have been manually extracted and separated parts of the stems, leaves and seed pods devoid of green. The green beans for the purposes of human nutrition and food preparation and consumption of the fresh green can be separated. In this study, the empty pods of green pea plants were considered. The purpose of the study was to estimate the effects of green pea (Pisum sativum L.) pods tannins and phenolic compounds on in vitro ruminal, post-ruminal digestibility using laboratory methods.
Materials and Methods In order to to determine the chemical composition and in vitro ruminal degradability of green pea pod cell wall, nylon bag and test gas technique were applied. After preparation of green peas and isolating pods and drying, chemical composition analysis for dry matter, crude protein, ether extract, organic matter, ash, neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF) were done as AOAC. The total phenolic content was estimated by Folin Ciocalteu method. Feed tested due to tannins substance and study its effect on the fermentation and gas production were processed and stained with levels 200 (one the weight of a sample), 400 (twice the weight of the sample) and 600 (three times the weight of sample) mg polyethylene powder glycol (Merck, MW = 6000). Effect of polyethylene glycol on the pH, methane (ml per 200 mg feed), and the number of protozoa in the rumen fluid per milliliter at 24 h of incubation green pea pods were studied. The obtained data were analyzed in a completely randomized design.
Results and Discussion The results of chemical composition analysis for dry matter, crude protein, ether extract, organic matter, ash, neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF) were 87.53, 10.03, 2.5, 79.49, 8.04, 40.31 and 23.69 percent, respectively. Determination of rumen digestibility done by Holden method in digestion bottle and digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, dry organic matter digestibility (DOMD) and metabolizable energy were 81.06, 80.46,73,98 and 11.61, respectively. Amount of gas production recorded for 2,4,8.12,24,48,72 and 96 times after incubation and fermentation parameters with gas production (ml/200mgDM), in vitro organic matter digestibility(%DM), metabolizable energy (MJ/kg DM), NEL(MJ/kg DM) and short chain fatty acids (mmol/200mgDM) calculated. By treating and supplementation of this feed by PEG significant difference was not observed for gas amount of soluble fraction, insoluble fraction, and the total gas production from soluble and insoluble fractions of green pea pods. In this study after 24 h of incubation pH differences among different treatments was not significant. Total protozoa counted in significant differences between treatments (P

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • chemical composition
  • digestibility
  • Gas production
  • Green pea pod
  • Tannin
  • Non-forage fiber
1- Alipoor, F., H. Arabi., O. Zamani., D. Alipoor., M. Maleki., M. Irajifar, and A. Atomi. 2011. Effect on organic matter digestibility and metabolizable energy PEG Pakistani prosopis fruit. The first National Congress on Science and New Technologies in Agriculture. Zanjan University, Zanjan, Iran. (In Persian).
2- Alipoor, D., M. M. Tabatabai., P. Zamani., H. Ali Arabi., A. A. Saki, and Z. Zamani. 2010. Determination chemical composition and gas production parameters in waste raisins. Iranian Journal of Animal Science, 1(2): 109-118. (In Persian).
3- Annexstad, R. J., M. D. Stern., D. E. Otterby., J. G. Linn, and W. P. Hansen. 1987. Extruded soybeans and corn gluten meal as supplemental protein sources for lactating dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science, 70(4): 814- 822.
4- AOAC .2005. Official Methods of Analysis, AOAC International. 18th ed. Gaithersburg, Maryland 20877-2417, USA.
5- Bhandari, D.S., H. N. Cavil, and A. Hussein. 1979. Chemical composition and nutritive value of Khejri (prosopis cineraria) tree leaves. Annals of Arid Zone, 18 (3): 170 -173.
6- Bhatta, R., Y. Uyeno., K. Tajima., A. Takenaka., Y. Yabumoto., I. Nonaka., O. Enishi, and M. Kurihara. 2009. Difference in the nature of tannins on in vitro ruminal methane and volatile fatty acid production and on methanogenic archaea and protozoal populations. Journal of Dairy Science, 92(11): 5512–5522.
7- Blummel, M., H. P. S. Makkar, and K. Becker. 1997. In vitro gas production: atechnique revisited. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 77(1-5): 24–34.
8- Calsamiglia, S, and M. D. Stern. 1995. A three-step in vitro procedure for estimating intestinal digestion of protein in ruminants. Journal of Animal Science, 73(5): 1459- 1465.
9- Daesh Mesgaran, M, and A. Vakili. 2007. Digestion and Metabolism in Ruminants. Ferdowsi University of Mashhad publication. Mashhad, Iran. (In Persian).
10- Daesh Mesgaran, M. 2008. Modern Methods of in vitro Studies Animal Science with Special Attention to Agriculture by-products. Ferdowsi University of Mashhad publication. Mashhad, Iran. (In Persian).
11- Dehority, B. A. 1984. Evaluation of sub sampling and fixation procedures used for counting rumen protozoa, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 48(1): 182-185.
12- Demeyer, D., M. De Meulemeester., K. De Graeve, and B.W. Gupta. 1988. Effect of fungal treatment on nutritive value of straw. Medicine Faculty Landbouww. Rijksuniversity. Gent, 53(4a): 1811–1819.
13- Dixon, R. M, and B. J. Hosking. 1992. Nutritional value of grain legumes for ruminants. Nutrition Research Reviews, 5(1): 19-43.
14- Dorman, H. J. D., P. Surai, and S. G. Deans. 2000. In vitro antioxidant activity of a number of plant essential oils and phytoconstituents. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 12(2): 241–248.
15- Fagg, C. W, and J. L. Stewart. 1994. The value of acacia and prosopis in arid and semi-arid environments. Journal of Arid Environments, 27(1): 3-25.
16- FAO Statistical. 1995. Available at http://www.fao.org/corp/statistics/en.
17- Frutos, P., G. Hervas., F. J. Giraldez, and A. R. Mantecon. 2004. Review. Tannins and ruminant nutrition. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, 2(2): 191–202.
18- Getachew, G., P. H. Robinson., E. J. DePeters, and S. J. Taylor. 2004. Relationships between chemical composition, dry matter degradation and in vitro gas production of several ruminant feeds. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 111(1-4): 57–71.
19- Ghasemi, S., A. A. Naserian., R. Valizadeh., A. M. Tahmasebi., A. R. Vakili., M. Behgar, and S. Ghovvati. 2012. Inclusion of pistachio hulls as a replacement for alfalfa hay in the diet of sheep causes a shift in the rumen cellulolytic bacterial population. Small Ruminant Research, 104(1-3): 94– 98.
20- Gurbuz, Y. 2007. Determination of nutritive value of leaves of several Vitis vinifera varieties as a source of alternative feedstuff for sheep using in vitro and in situ measurements. Small Ruminant Research, 71(1-3): 59-66.
21- Hervas, G., P. Frutusos., F. J. Giraldez., M. J. Mora., B. Fernandez, and A. R. Mantecon. 2005. Effect of preservation on fermentative activity of rumen fluid inoculum for in vitro gas production techniques. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 123-124(1): 107-118.
22- Hess, H. D., F. L. Valencia., L. M. Monsalva., C. E. Lascano, and M. Kreuzer. 2004. Effects of tannins in calliandra calothyrsus and supplemental molasses on ruminal fermentation in vitro. Journal of Animal Feed Science, 13: 95-98.
23- Hetta, M. 2004. Timothy and red clover as forage for dairy production (In vitro Degradation Characteristics and Chemical Composition). PhD Thesis. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Swedish.
24- Hillman, H. K., C. J. Newbold, and C. S. Steward. 1993. The contribution of bacteria and protozoa to ruminal forage fermentation in vitro as determined by microbial gas production. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 36(3-4): 193-208.
25- Holden, L. A. 1999. Comparison of method of in vitro dry matter digestibility for ten feeds. Journal of Dairy Science, 82(8): 1791- 1794.
26- Iason, G. 2005. The role of plant secondary metabolites in mammalian herbivory: ecological perspectives, in symposium on .plants as animal foods: a case of catch. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 64: 123-131.
27- Jayanegara, A., Leiber, F., Kreuzer, M. 2012. Meta-analysis of the relationship between dietary tannin level and methane formation in ruminants from in vivo and in vitro experiments. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 96(3): 365-375.
28- Khalil, J. K., W. N. Sawaya, and S. Z. Hyder. 1986. Nutrient composition of Atriplex leaves grown in Saudi Arabia Journal Range Management, 39(2): 104–107.
29- Khanum, S. A., T. Yaqoob., S. Sadaf., M. Hussain., M. A. Jabbar., H. N. Hussain., R. Kausar, and S. Rehman. 2007. Nutritional evalution of varius feedstuffs for livestock production using in vitro gas method. Pakistan Veterinary Journal, 27(3): 129-133.
30- Lopez, S., M. S. Dhanoa., J. Dijkstra., A. Bannink., E. Kebreab, and J. France. 2007. Some methodological and analytical considerations regarding application of the gas production technique. Journal Animal Feed Science and Technology, 135(1-2): 139-156.
31- Lotfi Nuqany, R, and Y, Roozbahan. 2011. Estimation of organic matter digestibility of pistachio shells using Taleshi sheep rumen fluid. Iranian Journal of Animal Science, 3: 231-237. (In Persian).
32- Mabjeesh, S. J., M. Cohen, and A. Arieli. 2000. In vitro methods for measuring the dry matter digestibility of rumen feedstuffs: comparition of methods and inoculum source. Journal of Dairy Science, 83: 2289-2249.
33- Makkar, H. P. S. 2003. Effects and fate of tannins in ruminant animals, adaptation to tannins, and strategies to overcome detrimental effects of feeding tannin-rich feeds. Small Ruminant Research, 49(3): 241–256.
34- Makkar, H. P. S. 2004. Recent advances in the in vitro gas method for evaluation of nutritional quality of feed resources. Assessing quality and safety of animal feeds. Fao. 160: 55-86.
35- Mansouri, H., A. Nick Khairkh., M. Rezaiean., M. Moradi, and S. A. Mirhadi. 2003. Determination of degradability and gas production of forage using the nylon bag technique. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 34(2): 495- 507. (In Persian).
36- Mateos-aparicio, I., A. Redondo-Cuenca., M. J. Villanueva-Suarez., M. A. Zapatarevilla, and M. D. Tenorio-Sanz. 2010. Pea pod, broad bean pod and okara, potential sources of functional compounds. Food Science and Technology, 43(9): 1467-1470.
37- Mauricio, R. M., E. Owen., F. L. Mould., I. Givens., M. K.Theodorou., J. France., D. R. Davies, and M. S. Dhanoa. 2001. Comparison of bovine rumen liquor and bovine faeces as inoculum for an in vitro gas production technique for evaluating forages. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 89(1-2): 33-48.
38- Menke, K, and H. Steinggass. 1988. Estimation of the energetic feed value from chemical analyses and in vitro gas production using rumen fluid. Animal Research and Development, 28: 7-55.
39- Menke, K. H., L. Raab., A. Salewski., H. Steingass., D. Fritz, and W. Schneider. 1979. The estimation of digestibility and metabolizable energy content of ruminant feedstuff from the gas production when they incubated with rumen liquor in vitro. Journal of Agricultural Science–Cambridge, 93(1): 183-189.
40- Min B. R., T. N. Barry., G. T. Attwood, and W. C. Mc Nabb. 2003. The effect of condensed tannins on the nutrition and health of ruminants fed fresh temperate forages: a review. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 106(1-4): 3–19.
41- Min, B. R., G. T. Attwood., K. Reilly., W. Sun., J. S. Peters., T. N. Barry, and W. C. Mcnabb. 2002. Lotus corniculatus condensed tannins decrease in vivo populations of proteolytic bacteria and affect nitrogen metabolism in the rumen of sheep. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 48(10): 911.921.
42- Min, B. R., W. E. Pinchak., J. D. Fulford, and R. Puchala. 2005. Effect of feed additives on in vitro and in vivo rumen characteristic and frothy bloat dynamics in steers grazing weat pasture. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 123-124(2): 615-629.
43- Mirzaei-Aghsaghali, A., N. Maheri-Sis., H. Mansouri., M. Ebrahim Razegh., A. Mirza-Aghazadeh., H. Cheraghi, and A. Aghajanzadeh-Golshani. 2011. Evaluating potential nutritive value of pomegranate processing by-products for ruminants using in vitro gas production technique. Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science, 6(6): 45-51.
44- Mould, F. L., K. E. Kliem., R. Morgan, and R. M. Mauricio. 2005. In vitro microbial inoculum: a review of its function and properties. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 123–124(1): 31–50.
45- Navid Shad, B., A. R, Jafari Saiyadi. 2006. Animal Nutrition. Haghshenas Press, Rasht, Iran. (In Persian).
46- Nick Khairkh, A, and A. Mahdavi. 2006. Compare nylon bag technique (in situ) and gas test method for determining the nutritional value of feed. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 37(2): 292-281. (In Persian).
47- Ørskov, E. R, and I. Mcdonald. 1979. The estimation of protein degradability in the rumen from incubation measurements weighted according to rate of passage. Journal of Agricultural Science–Cambridge, 92(2): 499-503.
48- Patra, A. K, and J. Saxena. 2010. A new perspective on the use of plant secondary metabolites to inhibit methanogenesis in the rumen. Phytochemistry, 71(11-12): 1198–1222.
49- SAS Institute. 2000. SAS User’s Guide: Statistics, Version 9.1 Edition. Cary, NC, USA.
50- Smith, L.W., H. K. Goering, and C. H. Gordon. 1972. Relationships of forage compositions with rates of cell wall digestion and indigestibility of cell walls. Journal of Dairy Science, 55(8): 1140-1147.
51- Sniffen, C. J., J. D. O'connor., P. J. Van Soest., D. G. Fox, and J. B. Russell. 1992. A net carbohydrate and protein system for evaluating diets: ii.carbohydrate and protein availability. Journal of Animal Science, 70(11): 3562-3577.
52- Tabatabai, S. M. 2003. Aspects of the physiology of ruminants. Buali Sina University press, Iran. (In Persian).
53- Tavendale, M. H., L. P. Meagher., D. Pacheco., N. Walker., G. T. Attwood, and S. Sivakumaram. 2005. Methane production from in vitro rumen incubations with lotus pedunculatus and medicago sativa, and effects of extractable condensed tannin fractions on methanogenesis. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 123 (1): 403-419.
54- Terrill, T. H., A. M.rowan., G. B. Douglas, and T. N. Barry. 1992. Determination of extractable and bound condensed tannin concentrations in forage plants, protein concentrates meals and cereal grains. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 58(3): 321-329.
55- Tiemann, T. T., C. E. Lascano., H. R. Wettstein., A. C. Mayer., M. Kreuzer, and H. D .Hess. 2008. Effect of the tropical tannin-rich shrub legumes Calliandra calothyrsus and Flemingia macrophylla on methane emission and nitrogen and energy balance in growing lambs. Animal, 2(5): 790–799.
56- Tilley, J. M. A, and R. A Terry. 1963. A two-stage technique for the in vitro digestion of forage crops. Grass and Forage Science, 18(2): 104-111.
57- Torbatinejad, N., S.Galeshi, and T. Ghoorchi. 2009. Evaluation by chemical and in vitro gas production techniques of Foxtail Millet grow in northern Iran. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 8(12): 2662-2669.
58- Van Soest, P. J., J. B. Roberson, and B. A. Lewis. 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science, 74(10): 3583-3597.
59- Villalba, J. J., F. D. Provenza, and R. E Banner. 2002. Influence of macronutrients and polyethylene glycol on intake of a quebracho tannin diet by sheep and goats. Journal of Animal Science, 80(12): 3154-3164.
60- Wallace, R. J., L. C. Arthaud, and J. Newbold. 1994. Influence of yucca schidigera extract on ruminal ammonia concentrations and ruminal microorganisms. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 60(6): 762-767.
61- Wallace, R. J., S. J. A. Wallace., N. McKain., V. L. Nsereko, and G. F. Hartnell. 2001. Influence of supplementary fibrolytic enzymes on the fermentation of corn and grass silages mixed ruminal microorganisms in vitro. Journal of Animal Science, 79(7): 1905-1916.
62- Zamani, O., Hey, Hejabri, and F. KafilZadeh. 2010. Effect of PEG on fermentation pattern of acorn (Quercus persica) in vitro. The first National Congress on Science and New Technologies in Agriculture. Zanjan University, Zanjan, Iran. (In Persian).