اثرات آنتی اکسیدانی α-توکوفرول استات، پوست و عصاره پوست انار در جیره های حاوی روغن ماهی بر کیفیت گوشت ران و سینه جوجه های گوشتی

نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی- تغذیه طیور

نویسندگان

1 گروه علوم دامی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 دانشگاه فردوسی، گروه صنایع غذایی

3 گروه علوم و صنایع غذایی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

این مطالعه به منظور بررسی اثرات آنتی اکسیدانی α-توکوفرول استات، پوست و عصاره پوست انار در جیره های حاوی روغن ماهی بر درصد چربی، الگوی اسید چرب، اکسیداسیون و میزان ترکیبات فنلی گوشت های ران، سینه جوجه های گوشتی، انجام شد. تعداد 384 قطعه جوجه گوشتی نر یکروزه سویه راس 308 در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی، با 8 تیمار غذایی و 4 تکرار 12 جوجه ای در هر واحد آزمایشی، به مدت 42 روز تغذیه شدند. جهت غنی‌سازی گوشت، 2 درصد روغن ماهی به همه جیره ها افزوده شد. هشت تیمار غذایی شامل: جیره شاهد فاقد آنتی اکسیدان، جیره شاهد حاوی 200 میلی گرم در کیلوگرم α-توکوفرول استات، جیره های حاوی 100،200 و 300 میلی گرم در کیلوگرم عصاره پوست انار و جیره های حاوی 10، 20 و 30 گرم در کیلوگرم پوست انار بودند. همه جیره ها دارای غلظت انرژی قابل متابولیسم و درصد مواد مغذی یکسان و براساس راهنمای پرورش راس 308 تنظیم شدند. در سن 42 روزگی از هر تکرار یک قطعه جوجه انتخاب و پس از ذبح، گوشت ران و سینه به طور جداگانه 2 بار چرخ و به دو زیر نمونه تقسیم که یکی در دمای C4⁰+ و دیگری در دمای C20⁰- جداگانه نگهداری شدند. آنالیز ترکیب اسید چرب، با استفاده از دستگاه گاز کروماتوگرافی از نمونه های نگهداری شده در دمای C20⁰- انجام شد. جهت بررسی پایداری اکسیداتیو هر نمونه گوشت، میزان مالون دی آلدهاید (MDA) و فعالیت خنثی سازی رادیکال آزاد DPPH در طی روز های 0، 7 و 11 بعد از آزمایش با استفاده از نمونه های نگهداری شده در دمای C4⁰+، اندازه گیری شد. اندازه گیری ترکیبات فنلی عضلات با استفاده از روش فولین -سیکالتو انجام گردید. نتایج نشان داد که، میزان ذخیره اسیدهای چرب: اسید ایکوزا پنتانوئیک (EPA)، اسید دوکوزا پنتانوئیک (DPA)، اسید دوکوزا هگزانوئیک (DHA) و ترکیبات فنلی، در هر دو نمونه گوشت در جوجه های تغذیه شده با جیره‌های حاوی α-توکوفرول استات و عصاره پوست انار، افزایش نشان داد(05/0p

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of α-tocopherol acetate, peel and extract pomogrante antioxidative potential in diet contained fish oil on meat quality boiler chicken

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hassan Salehi 1
  • Abolghsem Golian 1
  • Hassan Kermanshahi 1
  • Reza Farhoosh 2
  • Pooran Abrishamchi 3
1 Higher Educational Complex of Saravan, Sistan and baluchistan
2 Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
3 Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
چکیده [English]

Introduction Poultry meat enriched with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids n-3 (PUFA Lc n-3) can make a nutritionally meaningful contribution to Western diets in which consumption of PUFA Lc n-3 is low. Enrichment of poultry meat with this fatty acid is usually achieved by inclusion of fish oil in broiler diet (23, 24). However, meat enriched in this way is susceptible to quality deterioration by lipid oxidation during storage or cooking, leading to reduction in nutritive value and accumulation of lipid oxidation products (10). Oxidation is a very general process affecting lipids, pigments, proteins, DNA, carbohydrates, and vitamins (11). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary α-tocopherol (α-Toc), pomegranate peel extract (PPE) and pomegranate peel (PP) on fatty acid profile, aoxidation and phenolic compounds in raw thigh and breast meat during refrigeration.
Materials and methods Peels of pomegranate were harvested in October 2011 from pomegranate trees (Ardestani, variety) in Khorasan Razavi province (East, Iran). Dried powders of peels (2.5 g) were extracted with 40 mL of methanol solvent at room temperature for 6 hours. Three hundred and eighty four 1-d-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly allotted to 8 groups with 4 replicates of 12 birds. Eight dietary treatments including control diet without feed additives, control diet mixed with 200 mg/kg α-Toc, control diet mixed with PPE (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg), and control diet mixed with PP (1, 2 and 3 g/kg). In all diets 2% fish oil were added to enhance the enrichment of unsaturated n-3 fatty acid in birds. One broiler chick was randomly selected from each pen of 42 d of age. The antioxidative potential and various meat quality characteristics were determined on 0, 7, and 11 days of refrigerated storage. Total phenols content in the aqueous supernatant was estimated by the Folin-Ciocalteu method (33). 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity was estimated according to Blois’ (2). Lipid oxidation in sample was determined as the TBARS value by using the method described by Ahn et al. (1). Fatty acid profile of samples was determined by gas chromatography (7). Data were subjected to ANOVA using the GLM procedures of SAS (27).
Results and discussion The FA composition of the diets, particularly PUFA Lc n-3, was modified and increased by the inclusion of fish oil in diet. The concentration of saturated fatty acid in the thigh and breast meat was not influenced in broilers fed PP, PPE, and α-Toc diets as compared to control group. The results indicated that the tissue of broilers have a limited capacity for alteration of their saturated fatty acids (7). Monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) content in thigh and breast was decreased in birds fed diet containing PP, PPE and α-Toc compared to control group (P

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Antioxidant
  • Fatty acid
  • Meats Broiler
  • Peel pomegranate
  • Phenolic compounds
1. Ahn, D. U., D. G. Olson., C. Jo., J. Love, and S. K. Jin. 1999. Volatiles production and lipid oxidation on irradiated cooked sausage as related to packaging and storage. Journal Food Science, 64(2), 226−229.
2. Blois, M. S. 1958. Antioxidant determination by the use of a stable free radical. Nature, 181, 1199−1200.
3. Botsogloua, N.A., E. Christaki., D.J. Fletourisb., P. Florou-Paneri, and A.B. Spaisa. 2002. The effect of dietary oregano essential oil on lipid oxidation in raw and cooked chicken during refrigerated storage. Meat Science, 62:259–265
4. Brenes, A., A. Viveros., I. Gon., C. Centeno., S. G. Sayago-Ayerdy., I. Arija, and F. Saura-Calixto. 2008. Effect of Grape Pomace Concentrate and Vitamin E on Digestibility of Polyphenols and Antioxidant Activity in Chickens. Poultry Science, 87:307–316
5. Cherian G. R. K. Selvaraj, M. P. Goeger, and P. A. Stitt. 2002. Muscle Fatty Acid Composition and Thiobarbituric Acid-Reactive Substances of Broilers Fed Different Cultivars of Sorghum. Poultry Science, 81:1415–1420
6. Chidambara Murthy K. N., G. K Jayaprakasha, and R. P Singh. 2002. Studies on antioxidant activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel extract using in vivo models. Journal Agriculture Food Chemistry, 14;50(17):4791-5.
7. Cortinas, L., C. Villaverde., J. Galobart., D. Baucells, and A. Barroeta. 2004. Fatty acid content in chicken thigh and breast as affected by dietary polyunsaturated level. Journal Poultry Science, 83: 1155-1164.
8. Farhoomand, P and S. Checaniazer. 2009. Effects of graded levels of dietary fish oil on the yield and fatty acid composition of breast meat in broiler chickens. Journal Applied Poultry Research, 18 :508–513
9. Goli, A. H., M. Barzegar, and M. A. Sahari. 2005. Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic Compounds of Pistachio (Pistachia vera) Hull Extracts. Food Chemistry, 92: 521-525.
10. Gon, I., A. Brenes., C. Centeno., A. Viveros., F. Saura-Calixto., A. Rebole., I. Arija, and R. Estevez. 2007. Effect of Dietary Grape Pomace and Vitamin E on Growth Performance, nutrient Digestibility, and Susceptibility to Meat Lipid Oxidation in Chickens. Poultry Science, 86:508–516
11. Guo,C., J. Yang., J. Wei., Y. Li., J. Xu, and Y. Jiang. 2003. Antioxidant activities of peel, pulp and seed fractions of common fruits as determined by FRAP assay. Nature Research, 23: 1719–1726
12. Hogan, S., L. Zhang., J. Li., B. Zoecklein, and K. Zhou. 2009. Antioxidant properties and bioactive components of Norton (Vitis aestivalis) and Cabernet Franc (Vitis vinifera) wine grapes. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 42(7), 1269−1274.
13. Jung S, J. H., B. Kim., H. Yun., Z. A Kruk, and C. Jo . 2010. Effect of dietary mixture of gallic acid and linoleic acid on anti oxidative potential and quality of breast meat from broiler. Meat Science, 86(2):520-6
14. Kang, H. K., K. H. Kang, J. C. Na, D. J., Yu, D. U. Kim, S. J. Lee, and S. H. Kim. 2008. Effects of feeding Rhus verniciflua extracts on egg quality and performance of laying hens. Korean Journal Food Science, 28:610-615.
15. Kim, S. H., C. D. Jun., K. Suko., B. J Choi., H, and S. Park Lim. 2006. Gallic acid inhibits histamine release and pro-inflammatory cytokine production in mast cells. Toxicology Science, 91(1), 123−131.
16. Lopez-Bote, C. J., J. K. Gray., E. A. Gomaa, and C. J. Flegal. 1998. Effect of dietary administration of oil extracts from rosemary and sage on lipid oxidation in broiler meat. British Poultry Science, 39(2), 235−240.
17. Min, B. R., K. C. Nam., J. C. Cordray, and D. U. Ahn. 2008. Factors Affecting Oxidative Stability of Pork, Beef, and Chicken Meat," ANIMAL INDUSTRY REPORT: AS 654, ASL R2257. Available at: http: //lib.dr.iastate.edu/ans_air/vol654/iss1/6
18. Mirghelenj S. A., A, Golian, and V. Taghizadeh. 2009. Enrichment of chicken meat with long chain omega-3 fatty acids through dietary fish oil. Research Journal Biology Science, 4:604–608.
19. Muhammad. S., F. M. Anjum., M. I. Khan., M. S. Arshad, and M. Shahi. 2012. Enhancement of lipid stability of broiler breast meat and meat products fed on alpha lipoic acid and alpha tocopherol acetate supplemented feed. Lip. Health and Disease, 11:57
20. Nagendra Prasad, K., B.Yang., S. Yang., Y. Chen., M. Zhao, and M. Ashraf. 2009. Identification of phenolic compounds and appraisal of antioxidant and antityr-osinase activities from litchi (Litchi sinensis Sonn.) seeds. Food Chemistry, 116(1) 1−7.
21. Park, C. I. and Y. J. Kim. 2008. Effects of dietary mugwort powder on the VBN, TBARS, and fatty acid composition of chicken meat during refrigerated storage. Korean Journal Food Science Animal, 28:505-511.
22. Priscilla, D. H, and P. S. Prince. 2009. Cardio protective effect of gallic acid on cardiac troponin-T, cardiac marker enzymes, lipid peroxidation products and antioxidants in experimentally induced myocardial infarction in Wistar rats. Chemico-Biolo intera, 179(2–3), 118−124.
23. Rymer. C and D. I. Givens. Effect of species and genotype on the efficiency of enrichment of poultry meat with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Lipids, 41:445–451 (2006).
24. Rymer. C and D. I. Givens. 2010. Effects of vitamin E and fish oil inclusion in broiler diets on meat fatty acid composition and on the flavour of a composite sample of breast meat. Journal Science Food Agriculture, 90: 1628–163
25. Santhini. E., R. Balwas, and V. V. Padma. 2011. Gallic Acid Isolated from Pomegranate Peel Extract Induces Reactive Oxygen Species Mediated Apoptosis in A549 Cell Line. Journal Cancer Therapy, 2, 638-645
26. Saleh, H., Sh. Rahimi., M. A. Karimi Torshizi, and Abo. G, Golian. 2010. Omega-3 enrichment Broiler of Meat Using Oil. Journal of animal and veterinary advance, 9(22): 2877-2882-1010.
27. SAS Institute Inc. (2004). SAS User's Guide. Cary, NC: SAS institute Inc.
28. Sayago-Ayerdi, S.G., A. Brenes., A. Viveros and I. Goñi. 2009. Antioxidative effect of dietary grape pomace concentrate on lipid oxidation of chilled and long-term frozen stored chicken patties. Meat Science, 83:528–533
29. Sim, J. S, and G. H Q. 1995. Designing poultry products using flaxseed. In L. U. Thompson, & S. Cunnane (Eds.), Flaxseed in human nutrition (pp. 315−333). Champaign: American Oil Chemist's Society Press.
30. Simitzis, P. E., S. G. Deligeorgis., J. A .Bizelis., A. Dardamani., I.Theodosiou, and K, Fegeros. 2008. Effect of dietary oregano oil supplementation on lamb meat characteristics. Meat Science, 79(2), 217−223.
31. Singh, R. P., Murthy, K. N. C. and Jayaprakasha, G. K. 2002. Studies on the Antioxidant Activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum) Peel and Seed Extracts Using in vitro Models. Journal Agriculture Food Chemistry, 50: 81-86.
32. Spolare, P., C. Joannis-Cassan, and E. Duran. 2005. Commercial applications of microalgae. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 101(2):87-96.
33. Wang. L., X. L. Piao., S. W. Kim., X. S. Piao., Y. B. Shenb and H. S. Lee. 2008. Effects of Forsythia suspensa Extract on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and Antioxidant Activities in Broiler Chickens under High Ambient Temperature. Poultry Science, 87:1287–1294
34. Yasoubi, P., M. Barzegar., M. A. Saha, and M. H. Azizi. 2007. Total Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Activity of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Peel Extracts. Journal Agriculter Science Technology, 9: 35-42.