اثر سطح انرژی و پروتئین جیره بر عملکرد رشد جوجه‌های بومی خزک از 7 تا 91 روزگی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد، گروه علوم دامی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل، زابل، ایران

2 استادیار، گروه علوم دامی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل

3 دانشیار، گروه علوم دامی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل

4 استادیار، پژوهشکده دام‌های خاص، دانشگاه زابل، زابل، ایران

چکیده

این پژوهش با هدف تعیین اثر سطوح مختلف انرژی و پروتئین جیره بر عملکرد رشد جوجه‌های بومی خزک و انتخاب بهترین ترکیب از سطوح انرژی و پروتئین در سن 7 تا 91 روزگی انجام شد. تعداد 360 قطعه جوجه هفت روزه به صورت تصادفی در نه تیمار شامل سه سطح انرژی (2600، 2800 و 3000 کیلوکالری بر کیلوگرم) و 3 سطح پروتئین (17، 19 و 21 درصد) به صورت آزمایش فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با چهار تکرار و تعداد 10 قطعه پرنده در هر تکرار توزیع شدند. جوجه‌ها از هفت‌روزگی وارد پن‌های آزمایشی شده و به مدت 12 هفته با جیره‌های آزمایشی تغذیه شدند. وزن‌کشی جوجه‌ها و مصرف دان به‌صورت هفتگی انجام شده و با استفاده از اطلاعات وزن بدن و مصرف خوراک، متوسط افزایش وزن بدن روزانه، ضریب تبدیل غذایی، انرژی و پروتئین مصرفی روزانه، راندمان مصرف انرژی و پروتئین در سه محدوده سنی (7تا 35، 35 تا 63 و 63 تا 91 روزگی) و کل دوره محاسبه شد. داده‌های جمع‌آوری شده با استفاده از رویه GLM نرم‌افزارSAS نسخه 1/9 مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفت و مقایسه میانگین‌ها با آزمون توکی در سطح 5 درصد انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد که اثر سطوح مختلف انرژی و پروتئین بر متوسط افزایش وزن، مصرف خوراک (به استثنای سنین 63 تا 91 روزگی)، ضریب تبدیل، مصرف انرژی، مصرف پروتئین (به استثنای سنین 63 تا 91 روزگی) سه دوره مورد مطالعه و کل دوره، تأثیر معنی‌دار داشت. همچنین تأثیر متقابل سطوح انرژی و پروتئین جیره بر تمامی متغیرهای مورد مطالعه در کلیه دوره‌ها معنی‌داری بود. اثر سطوح انرژی و پروتئین جیره به ترتیب بر راندمان مصرف پروتئین و راندمان مصرف انرژی معنی‌دار نبود. اختلاف بین پرندگان تغذیه شده با جیره‌های با سطح انرژی 3000 و 2800 کیلوکالری بر کیلوگرم و سطح پروتئین 21 با 19 درصد از لحاظ بسیاری

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of dietary energy and protein level on growth performance of native Khazak chickens from 7 to 91 days of age

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Zardadzaei 1
  • mahmoud ghazaghi 2
  • Farzad Bagherzadeh Kasmani 3
  • Hadi Faraji-Arough 4
1 MSe. graduated, Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Animal Science, Agriculture Faculty, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran
3 Associate Professor, Department of Animal Science, Agriculture Faculty, University of Zabol, Zabol
4 Assistant Professor, Research Center of Special Domestic Animals, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction The knowledge of the bird requirements is one of the existing solutions to increase poultry production in the country in order to take advantage of their maximum production capacity. Due to the high cost of feed in poultry production units, it is very important to consider the main components of the feed. Energy and protein are very important nutrients for poultry. Energy is necessary for body function and protein is essential constituent of all tissues of bird's body. Proteins have a major effect on growth performance of the birds, and it is the most expensive nutrient in the broiler diets. A large part of the production cost in poultry farms is related to feeding and so far a lot of research has been done to better use of the feed by the animal and reduce feeding costs. Diets contain excessive amounts of some nutrients lead to the loss of these nutrients and to increase the cost of breeding. Khazak hen is a native hen of Sistan region with a small body. Achieving better growth performance in this bird requires determining the optimal levels of energy and dietary protein in different phases of production. Since there is no information about the optimal level of energy and protein in the growth period for Khazak chickens, so this study was conducted to determine the effect of different levels of energy and protein on growth performance of Khazak native chickens and select the best combination of energy and protein levels at 7 to 91 days of age.

Materials and Methods The research was performed on Khazak chickens in the Research Center of Domestic Animals (RCDA) in the University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran. A total of 360 seven- day- old chicks were randomly allocated to 9 dietary treatments including three levels of energy (2600, 2800 and 3000 kcal / kg) and protein (17, 19 and 21%) as a factorial experiment in a completely randomized design with four replications, and 10 birds in each replication. The chicks entered the experimental pen in seven days of old and they were examined with experimental diets for 12 weeks. The birds had ad libitum access to feed and water throughout the experiment. Eenvironmental conditions in terms of light, temperature and humidity were considered similar for experimental treatments. Weighing chickens and feed intake were measured weekly. Other parameters including average daily body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, daily energy and protein intake, energy and protein efficiency ratio were calculated based on the body weight and feed intake data, in three age ranges (7 to 35, 35 to 63 and 63 to 91 days of age) and the whole period. The collected data were analyzed using GLM procedure of SAS software version 9.1 and the means were compared with Tukey test at 5% level.

Results and Discussion The results showed that the effect of different energy and protein levels had a significant effect on weight gain, feed intake (except for 63-91 days of age period), feed conversion ratio, energy and protein intake (except for 63-91 days of age period) in three studied periods and whole period (P˂0.05). Also, the energy and protein interaction showed a significant effect on all studied variables in all periods (P /0 0.05). The effect of energy and protein levels were not significant on protein efficiency ratio (PER) and energy efficiency ratio (EER), respectively. During the starter period, birds may have physical limitations when they consume low-density diets. In fact, there is a decrease in energy consumption due to physical limitations when the birds consume a diet with low energy and protein in the starter period. As the results of the present study showed, determining the optimal energy and protein levels of the diet is very important to maximize the performance of native chickens. In order to balance poultry performance and economic production, an applied feeding program represent a compromise between the nutritional requirement of the animal and management needs. Thus, one possible way to achieve this balance is a diet formulation that can regulate a specific ratio of protein to renewable energy

Conclusion Although, the many performance variables were not significant between energy levels of 3000 with 2800 kcal/kg and protein levels of 21 with 19%, but the negative effect on performance was observed by reducing energy level to 2600 kcal/kg and protein level to 17 %. So level of 2800 kcal/kg and 19% for energy and protein suggested for these ages of chickens.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Daily weight gain
  • Khazak chick
  • Protein efficiency ratio
  • Feed conversion ratio
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