نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی - تغذیه نشخوارکنندگان
1 گروه علوم دامی، دانشگاه شهرکرد، شهرکرد، ایران
2 گروه علوم دامی دانشگاه شهرکرد، شهرکرد، ایران
عنوان مقاله [English]
Introduction The use of additives that improve the microbial function of the rumen seems to be essential. Probiotics is a Latin word for life. Probiotics are living microorganisms that contain beneficial bacteria and yeasts. The most important feature of probiotics is that while reducing the pathogenic germs in the gastrointestinal tract and improving the feed conversion ratio in the animal, they do not have any residual tissue and unlike antibiotics do not cause microbial resistance. Probiotics are now used not only as growth stimulants but also to stimulate the immune system and prevent many diseases. The use of probiotics to improve function, improve health, and change in rumen ecosystems are a good alternative to antibiotics. Sheep milk has a great nutritional value used in cheese, yogurt, butter and other dairy products. Studies investigating the effect of adding probiotics to sheep feed on milk production and composition are scarce, and most studies have been conducted in dairy cows. Reports have shown contradictory results on the addition of probiotics to milk production and compounds. Due to the limitation of the effect of probiotic supplementation on sheep milk production and composition, especially Lori Bakhtiari sheep, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of oral probiotics on the process of colostrum and milk compounds in the first month of lactation.
Materials and Methods The study was conducted in Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari province. For this purpose, 28 Lorri Bakhtiari ewes, first abdomen to the sixth abdomen were selected in the last month of pregnancy. All ewes were fed a similar diet. The ewes were divided into two groups of 14 and received experimental treatments for one month. Treatments included 1) control (the group that did not take probiotics) 2-the group who consumed 1 gram of probiotic per day. In the experimental group (14), in addition to the above diet, in the morning, 1 g of probiotic was dissolved in 5 ml of water and fed to the ewes via syringe. The probiotic used in this study was protexin. Colostrum samples were taken from each ewe after calving to measure colostrum factors. Albumin and total protein concentrations were measured using Pars test kits and the photometric method. Globulin concentration is calculated by subtracting albumin from total protein. Gerber method was used to measure the percentage of colostrum fat. We need ash to measure colostrum minerals. To do this, pour 5 grams of colostrum into the bush, then place the bushes in the oven to dry. The samples were kept at this temperature for 24 hours until they were completely gray and turned white. Finally, the concentration of minerals was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer using a dry digestion method. Phosphorus was measured by the yellow method. Milk samples were taken from each ewe on the 14th day of lactation to measure milk factors such as fat, protein, lactose, solids and milk freezing point. They were measured using a milk analyzer.
Results and Discussion The results showed that the addition of probiotics protexin had no significant effect on body weight, colostrum factors including albumin, total protein, globulin and fat (P >0.05). The concentration of colostrum minerals (arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, sodium, nickel, phosphorus, selenium, tin, zinc and calcium) was also not affected (P>0.05). So far, no studies have been performed on the addition of probiotics protexin to colostrum factors and minerals. However, there have been studies of the addition of probiotics to concentrations of albumin, total protein, and globulin and blood minerals. Contradictory results have also been reported in this case. The addition of protexin probiotics at the end of pregnancy on milk factors (fat, lactose, protein, solids and freezing point) in ewes was not significant (P >0.05). Consistent with our study, commercial bacterial probiotic feeding in ewes had no significant effect on the production and chemical composition of ewes. In other species of ruminants, the addition of bacterial probiotics and yeast probiotic resulted in inconsistent results on milk composition. The results were inconsistent due to differences in the amount and type of probiotic used, probiotic feeding method, type of ruminant, duration of probiotic use, and conditions of the ruminant (lactation).
Conclusion Overall, the results showed that the addition of probiotics in the last month of pregnancy had no significant effect on body weight, colostrum factors, colostrum mineral content and milk composition of Lori Bakhtiari ewes. This indicates that the rations were normal and had no negative effect of probiotics in the last month of gestation on ewes.
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