اثرات سطوح مختلف ترئونین و تعادل الکترولیتی جیره بر عملکرد رشد، بیوشیمی خون و پاسخ ایمنی جوجه‌های گوشتی تحت شرایط دمای بالای محیطی

نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی- تغذیه طیور

نویسندگان

گروه علوم دامی، دانشکده کشاورزی و محیط زیست، دانشگاه اراک، اراک، ایران.

چکیده

به منظور بررسی اثرات سطوح مختلف ترئونین و تعادل الکترولیتی جیره­ بر عملکرد رشد، فراسنجه­های بیوشیمی خون و پاسخ ایمنی جوجه­های گوشتی، از تعداد 600 قطعه جوجه گوشتی نر یکروزه (سویه راس 308) در شرایط دمایی فصل تابستان استفاده شد. این آزمایش در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی به­صورت فاکتوریل 2×3 در 5 تکرار (20 جوجه در هر تکرار) انجام شد. فاکتورهای آزمایشی شامل 2 سطح ترئونین (سطح 100 و  110 درصد توصیه راهنمای سویه راس) و 3 تعادل الکترولیتی جیره (175، 250 و 325 میلی­اکی­والان در کیلوگرم جیره) بودند. نتایج آزمایش نشان داد که اثر متقابل بین تعادل الکترولیتی و سطح ترئونین جیره بر وزن نسبی تیموس و عیار اولیه پادتن علیه واکسن برونشیت عفونی مشاهده شد. تعادل الکترولیتی پایین (175 میلی­اکی­والان در کیلوگرم جیره) در مقایسه با تعادل الکترولیتی بالا، موجب بهبود معنی­دار میانگین افزایش وزن روزانه و فعالیت سوپراکسید دیسموتاز و کاهش ضریب تبدیل غذایی و تلفات گردید. همچنین کاهش معنی­دار غلظت تری­گلیسرید خون و افزایش غلظت اسید اوریک، فعالیت سوپراکسید دیسموتاز و غلظت هورمون تیروکسین در گروه­های با سطح ترئونین بالا در مقایسه با تیمار حاوی سطح نرمال ترئونین مشاهده شد. با توجه به نتایج این مطالعه به نظر می­رسد که کاهش تعادل الکترولیتی پایین جیره به میزان 175 میلی­اکی­والان در کیلوگرم جیره اثرات مفید بر بهبود عملکرد رشد و وضعیت آنتی­اکسیدانی و همچنین افزایش ترئونین جیره از 100 به 110 درصد سطح توصیه شده تجاری اثرات مثبتی بر وضعیت ایمنی و آنتی اکسیدانی در جوجه­های گوشتی در شرایط تنش حرارتی دارد. همچنین نتایج آزمایش نشان داد که در شرایط مشابه، افزایش سطح ترئونین به میزان 110 درصد سطح توصیه شده تجاری در جیره با تعادل الکترولیتی بالا سبب بهبود سیستم ایمنی می­گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of different levels of threonine and dietary electrolyte balance on growth performance, blood biochemistry, and immune response of broiler chickens under high environmental temperature conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hossein Ali Ghasemi
  • Iman Haj Khodadadi
  • Mohammad Hossein Moradi
Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture and Environment, Arak University, Arak, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Introduction Although there are different ways of reducing the adverse effects of heat stress, including changing feeding methods and using various supplements in feed and drinking water, most of these methods are associated with reduced performance. Changes in dietary electrolyte balance have been suggested as one of the effective ways to reduce the adverse effects of heat stress in poultry. Although most studies found that amino acid metabolism can both affect or be affected by the acid-base balance of the body, the relationship between the dietary electrolyte balance and the dietary threonine concentration in broilers has not been well explained, especially under high temperature condition. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different DEB and threonine levels on growth performance, biochemical parameters, antioxidant status, thyroid hormones, and immune response of broiler chickens reared under high environmental temperature conditions.
Materials and Methods A total of 600 one-day-old male broiler chickens (Ross 308) were used to investigate the effect of different levels of threonine and dietary electrolyte balance (DEB) on performance, serum biochemical parameters and antibody response under summer temperature condition. All birds received a common starter diet in mash form and were raised conventionally up to 10 days of age, after which they were reared following a completely randomized, 3 × 2 factorial design experiment with 5 replicate pens of 20 birds each. Treatments consisted of two threonine levels (100 and 110 % of the commercially recommended levels) and 3 levels of DEB (175, 250 and 325 mEq/kg of diet). The average minimum and maximum temperatures inside the poultry house recorded from 11 to 42 days of age were 23.7 and 37.3 °C, respectively, with a relative humidity of 55 ± 3.45%. Average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of birds were determined during the grower (11 to 24 days) and finisher (25–42 days) periods, and also for the total experimental period (11–42 days). Two birds per replicate pen were randomly selected to evaluate the cell-mediated immune response to phytohaemagglutinin-P (PHA-P) on days 36 and 37. Blood samples (2 samples per replicate) were collected for measuring antibody responses (days 28 and 35), and also for biochemical analysis (day 42).
Results The results showed that the low DEB group significantly increased ADG over 11 to 24 and 11 to 42 days, but reduced (P<0.05) feed conversion ratio and mortality rate over the entire experiment (11 to 42 days). An increase in the superoxide dismutase activity was also associated with an increase in the DEB of the diet (P<0.05). Increasing the threonine level in the diet decreased the blood triglyceride concentration, but elevated the values of blood uric acid, thyroxin, and superoxide dismutase, as well as the toe web thickness 24 hours after PHA-P injection (P < 0.05). The interactions between DEB and threonine levels were observed for relative thymus weight and primary antibody titers against infectious bronchitis vaccine, indicating that the effects of threonine on these traits were more marked in broiler chickens fed on the high DEB diets. 
Discussion The chickens suffer from respiratory alkalosis in heat stress, and thus an increase in sodium bicarbonate or potassium bicarbonate, which leads to increased dietary DEB, exacerbates respiratory alkalosis. Accordingly, the lowest growth performance in this experiment belonged to the high DEB group (325 mEq/kg diet), which was achieved by adding potassium bicarbonate from 0.88% in the growth diet to 0.95% in the final diet. On the other hand, reducing dietary DEB value (with increasing the concentration of dietary chloride) has been reported to reduce blood pH by reducing the concentration of bicarbonate in the blood, and even cause metabolic acidosis, which could be a reason for improved growth performance of broilers that received the low DEB diet. In the present study, the high DEB diet could improve immune response, but those values were higher when birds were fed diets containing 110% threonine, as indicated by the interaction between DEB and threonine level. The reason for this change in the immune response to an increase in dietary threonine levels with modifications in acid-base balance is unknown. This may be linked to enhancing the production of ammonium in the kidney due to increased amino acid concentration, which stimulates protein synthesis and inhibits protein degradation of the tissues. This effect, in turn, may increase antibody synthesis by increasing threonine levels under alkaline conditions. Another factor for the negative effect of the high-DEB diet on growth performance could be the stimulation of the immune system. By stimulating the immune system, nutrients will be used to produce immunoglobulins and hence growth will be retarded. Under the condition of this study, the addition of threonine to the diet at 110% of the commercially recommended level increased the superoxide dismutase activity. Similarly, increasing dietary levels of threonine from 85 to 125% of the NRC recommendation increased serum glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities in broilers. In addition, reducing the DEB increased blood superoxide dismutase activity, which could be a reason for improved growth performance in the related-groups under heat stress conditions.
Conclusion According to the results of this study, decreasing the DEB from 325 to 175 mEq/kg could have beneficial impacts on growth performance and antioxidant status, while increasing dietary threonine from 100 to 110% of the strain recommendation had positive effects on the immune response and antioxidant status in heat-stressed broiler chickens. In addition, using threonine at 110% of the commercially recommended level in a high DEB diet could improve the immunity of broiler chickens under heat stress conditions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Threonine
  • Dietary electrolyte balance
  • Broilers
  • Performance
  • Summer
  1. Abbas, A., M. Jamshed Khan, M. Naeem, M. Ayaz, A. Sufyan, and M. Hussain Somro. 2012. Cation anion balance in avian diet: a review. Agriculture Science Research Journal, 2:302-307.
  2. Adekunmisi, A. A., and K. R. Robbins. 1987. Effect of dietary crude protein, electrolyte balance and photoperiod on growth of broiler chicks. Poultry Science, 66:299-305.
  3. Ahmad, T., T. Khalid, M. Mushtaq, M. A. Mirza, A. Nadeem, M. E. Babar, and G. Ahmad. 2008. Effect of potassium chloride supplementation in drinking water on broiler performance under heat stress conditions. British Poultry Science, 87:1276-1280.
  4. Ahmad, T., T. Mushtaq, Mahr-Un-M, M. Sarwar, D. M. Hooge, and M. A. Mirza. 2006. Effect of different non-chloride sodium sources on the performance of heat-stressed broiler chickens. British Poultry Science, 47:249-256.
  5. Amiri, M., H. A. Ghasemi, I. Hajkhodadadi, and A. H. Khaltabadi Farahani. 2019. Efficacy of guanidinoacetic acid at different dietary crude protein levels on growth performance, stress indicators, antioxidant status, and intestinal morphology in broiler chickens subjected to cyclic heat stress. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 254:114208.
  6. AOAC International. 2000. Official Methods of Analysis. 17th ed. AOAC Int., Arlington, VA.
  7. Ashrafi, B., A. Hesabi, and R. Vakeli. 2012. Effect of dietary electrolyte balance on performance and immune responses of broiler chickens reared in the heat stress environments. Iranian Journal of Animal Science Research, 3(4):376-384. (In Persian).
  8. Attia, Y. A., R. A. Hassan, A. E. Tag El-Din, and B. M. Abou-Shehema. 2011. Effect of ascorbic acid or increasing metabolizable energy level with or without supplementation of some essential amino acids on productive and physiological traits of slow-growing chicks exposed to chronic heat stress. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 95:744-755.
  9. Borges, S. A., A. V. Fischer da Silva, J. Ariki, and D. M. Hooge. 2003. Dietary electrolyte balance for broiler chickens exposed to thermoneutral or heat-stress environments. Poultry Science, 82:428-435.
  10. Borges, S. A., A. V. Fischer da silva, J. Ariki, D. M. Hooge, and K. R. Cummings. 2004. Physiological responses of broiler chickens to heat stress and dietary electrolyte balance (sodium plus potasium minus chloride, milliequivalents per kilogram). Poultry Science, 83:1551-1558.
  11. Borges, S. A., A. V. Fischer Da Silva, and A. Majorka. 2007. Acid-base balance in World’s Poultry Science Journal, 63:73-80.
  12. Brake, J., D. Balnave, and J. J. Dibner. 1998. Optimum dietary arginine:lysine ratio for broiler chickens is altered during heat stress in association with changes in intestinal uptake and dietary sodium British Poultry Science, 39:639-647.
  13. Debnath, B. C., P. Biswas, and B. Roy. 2019. The effects of supplemental threonine on performance, carcass characteristics, immune response and gut health of broilers in subtropics during pre-starter and starter period. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 103:29–40.
  14. Ghasemi, H. A., R. Ghasemi, and M. Torki. 2014. Periodic usage of low-protein methionine-fortified diets in broiler chickens under high ambient temperature conditions: effects on performance, slaughter traits, leukocyte profiles and antibody response. International Journal of Biometerology, 58:1405-1414.
  15. Ghasemi, H. A., N. Kasani, and K. Taherpour, 2014. Effects of black cumin seed (Nigella sativa L.), a probiotic, a prebiotic and a synbiotic on growth performance, immune response and blood characteristics of male broilers. Livestock Science, 164:128-134.
  16. Ghasemi, R., M. Torki, and H. A. Ghasemi. 2014. Effects of dietary crude protein and electrolyte balance on production parameters and blood biochemical of laying hens under tropical summer condition. Tropical Animal Health Production, 46:717-723.
  17. Humphrey, B., and K. Klasing, 2004. Modulation of nutrient metabolism and homeostasis by the immune system. World's Poultry Science Journal, 60:90-100.
  18. Jiang, Y., X. D. Liao, M. Xie, J. Tang, S. Y. Qiao, Z. G. Wen, and S. S. Hou. 2018. Dietary threonine supplementation improves hepatic lipid metabolism of Pekin ducks. Animal Production Science, 59:673-680.
  19. Jiang, Y., J. Tang, M. Xie, Z. G. Wen, S. Y. Qiao, and S. Hou. 2017. Threonine supplementation reduces dietary protein and improves lipid metabolism in Pekin ducks. British Poultry Science, 58:687-693.
  20. Jurkovitz, C. T., B. K. England, R. G. Ebb, and W. E. Mitch. 1992. Influence of ammonia and pH on protein and amino acid metabolism in LLC-PK1 cells. Kidney International, 42:595-601.
  21. Keagy, E. M., L. B. Carew, F. A. Alster, and R. S. Tyzbir. 1987. Thyroid function, energy balance, body composition and organ growth in protein-deficient chicks. Journal of Nutrition, 117:1532-1540.
  22. Khodambashi Emami, N., A. Samie, H. R. Rahmani, and C. A. Ruiz-Feria. 2012. The effect of peppermint essential oil and fructooligosaccharides, as alternatives to virginiamycin, on growth performance, digestibility, gut morphology and immune response of male broilers. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 175:57-64.
  23. Kidd, M. T., and B. J. Kerr. 1996. L-threonine for poultry: A review. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 5:358-367.
  24. Kidd, M. 2000. Nutritional considerations concerning threonine in broilers. World’s Poultry Science Journal, 56:139-151.
  25. Min, Y. N., S. G. Liu, G. H. Meng, and Y. P. Gaon. 2016. Effects of dietary threonine levels on growth performance, serum biochemical indexes, antioxidant capacities, and gut morphology in broiler chickens. Poultry Science, 96:1290-1297.
  26. Mushtaq, M. M. H., T. N. Pasha, T. Mushtaq, and R. Parvin. 2013. Electrolytes, dietary electrolyte balance and salts in broilers: An updated review on growth performance, water intake and litter quality. World's Poultry Science Journal, 69:789-802.
  27. Nari, N., and H. A. Ghasemi. 2020. Growth performance, nutrient digestibility, bone mineralization, and hormone profile in broilers fed with phosphorus-deficient diets supplemented with butyric acid and Saccharomyces boulardii. Poultry Science, 99:926-935.
  28. Nikoofard, V., A. H. Mahdavi, A. Samie, and E. Jahanian. 2016. Effects of different sulphur amino acids and dietary electrolyte balance levels on performance, jejunal morphology, and immunocompetence of broiler chicks. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 100:189-199.
  29. National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient requirements of poultry. 9th rev. ed. Natl. Acad. Press, Washington, DC.
  30. Parmentier, H. K., S. Bronkhorst, M. G. Nieuwland, G. V. de Reilingh, J. M. van der Linden, M. J. Heetkamp, B. Kemp, J. W. Schrama, M. W. Verstegen, and H. van den Brand. 2002. Increased fat deposition after repeated immunization in growing chickens. Poultry Science, 81:1308-1316.
  31. Patience, J. F. 1990. A review of the role of acid-base balance in amino acid nutrition. Journal of Animal Science, 68:398-408.
  32. Qaisrani, S. N., I. Ahmed, F. Azam, F. Bibi, T.N. Pasha, and F. Azam. 2018. Threonine in broiler diets: an updated review. Annals of Animal Science, 18:659-674.
  33. Siegel, H. S., A. M. Henken, M. W. A. Verstegen, and W. van der Hel. 1982. Heat production during the induction of an immune response to sheep red blood cells in growing pullets. Poultry Science, 61:2296-2300.
  34. Zarrin-Kavyani, S., A. Khatibjoo, F. Fattahnia, and K. Taherpour. 2018. Effect of threonine and potassium carbonate supplementation on performance, immune response and bone parameters of broiler chickens. Journal of Applied Animal Research, 46:1329-1335.
  35. Veldkamp, T., C. Nixey, R. P. Kwakkel, and J. P. T. M. Noordhuizen. 2000. Interaction between  ambient  temperature  and supplementation  of  synthetic  amino  acids  on  performance and carcass parameters in commercial male turkeys. Poultry Science, 79:1472-1477.
  36. Woolliams, J. A., G. Wiener, P. A. Anderson, and C. H. McMurray. 1983. Variation in the activities of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase and in the concentration of copper in the blood in various breed crosses of sheep. Research in Veterinary Science, 34:253-256.