بررسی اثر متقابل روغن سویا و علوفه یونجه در جیره استارتر گوساله‌های شیرخوار هلشتاین بر عملکرد، فراسنجه‌های رشد، تخمیر شکمبه‌ای و متابولیت‌های خونی

نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی - تغذیه نشخوارکنندگان

نویسندگان

1 گروه علوم دامی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران.

2 گروه علوم دامی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران

3 گروه علوم دامی،دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه اراک، اراک، ایران.

4 بخش علوم بالینی، دانشکده دامپزشکی، دانشگاه تبریز، تبریز، ایران

چکیده

جهت بررسی اثرات افزودن روغن سویا در جیره­های استارتر بدون علوفه و حاوی علوفه بر عملکرد، صفات رشد، تخمیر شکمبه­ای و متابولیت­های خونی تعداد 40 رأس گوساله­ شیرخوار هلشتاین با میانگین سنی 3 روز و میانگین وزنی 2/2±39 کیلوگرم در یک آزمایش فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با 4 تیمار و 10 تکرار مورد استفاده قرار گرفتند. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل: 1) خوراک آغازین بدون یونجه و روغن سویا (شاهد)؛ (2) خوراک آغازین حاوی 15 درصد یونجه؛ (3) خوراک آغازین حاوی 3 درصد روغن سویا؛ (4) خوراک آغازین حاوی 3 درصد روغن سویا و 15 درصد یونجه. مدت آزمایش 63 روز بود. خوراک آغازین مصرفی روزانه اندازه­گیری شد. وزن کشی گوساله­ها، فاکتورهای رشد، فراسنجه­های خونی، تعیین pH و فراسنجه­های شکمبه انجام شد. با افزودن روغن سویا و یونجه در جیره گوساله‌ها خوراک آغازین مصرفی کاهش پیدا کرد و کم­ترین وزن از شیرگیری مربوط به این تیمار بود و همچنین ارتفاع جدوگاه و هیپ در این تیمار کاهش یافت. مصرف روغن سویا و یونجه سبب کاهش کل اسیدهای چرب فرار شکمبه­ای شد (به ترتیب برابر 1/93، 9/89، 4/90 و 2/78 میلی مول در لیتر برای تیمارهای 1 تا 4 بود). استفاده از یونجه سبب کاهش غلظت پروپیونات و بوتیرات در شکمبه شده ولی سطح استات را افزایش داد. اثر متقابل یونجه و روغن سویا غلظت گلوکز، پروتئین­کل سرم را کاهش و غلظت کلسترول سرم خون را افزایش داد. استفاده از یونجه سبب افزایش غلظت اوره خون و کاهش غلظت بتاهیدروکسی بوتیرات شد. با توجه به نتایج این آزمایش، استفاده از روغن سویا به همراه یونجه به دلیل کاهش عملکرد رشد، تاثیر منفی بر تخمیر شکمبه‌ای و فراسنجه‌های خونی توصیه نمی­گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Interaction effect of soy oil and alfalfa hay in starter diet of Holstein dairy calves on performance, growth indices, ruminal fermentation and blood metabolites

نویسندگان [English]

  • abazar Karimi 1
  • Yones ali Alijoo 2
  • Mahdi Kazemi-Bonchenari 3
  • Mehdi Mirzaei 3
  • hassan Sadri 4
1 Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Urmia, Urmia, Iran
2 Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Urmia, Urmia, Iran
3 Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Arak University, Arak, Iran
4 Department of Clinical science, faculty Veterinary Medicine, Tabriz University, Tabriz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Rumen growth and development is a complex process that is highly influenced by nutritional status. The characteristics of a starter diet and nutrients such as fat, protein and forage are closely linked to proper rumen growth and successful weaning, which can ultimately affect the future of alternative heifers and milk production. Consumption of fat sources due to reduced dietary dust, increased dietary energy and reduced ability to produce methane in ruminal fermentation in ruminants has been favored. Research has been shown that the use of fat in the diet of dairy calves has increased efficiency. However, the level of fat consumed, its source, and individual fatty acid ratios appear to impact the performance of dairy calves as well. Regardless the dietary fat inclusion and energy status, researchers have reported that the use of forage in the diets of dairy calves has improved ruminal function and growth function, stimulated rumination and reduced non-nutritional behaviors. However, the use of high levels of forage in dairy calves will lead to poor rumen development, gastrointestinal filling, reduced feed intake, and ultimately reduced growth in dairy calves. Due to the fact that fats could cover on the dietary fiber and prevent the access and binding of microorganisms in the digestive tract, the digestion of fiber is reduced and consequently the consumption of food is also affected. Therefore, due to these contradictory assumptions and also due to limited studies on the interaction between fat consumption and fiber source level in dairy calves, an experiment examining the effects of soybean oil (SO) on starter diets with or without alfalfa hay inclusion (AH) on performance, body Growth, ruminal fermentation, and blood metabolites were performed in Holstein dairy calves.
Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in Avin-Dasht Industrial Livestock located in Takestan city of Qazvin province. For this purpose, 40 newborn Holstein calves with an average age of 3 days and an average weight of 39 ± 2.2 kg with 4 experimental diets (10 repeat/ each) were used completely randomly as a 2 × 2 factorial design. Experimental diets include: 1) No SO supplementation with no AH (NSO-NAH); 2) No SO supplementation with 15% AH inclusion (NSO-AH); 3) SO supplementation with no AH (SO-NAH); 4) SO supplementation with 15% AH inclusion (SO-AH). The milking plane for calves and the volume of milk consumed by the end of the period were similar for calves in all treatments. Study was initiated from d-3 of age, weaned on d 63 and calves had free access to starter diet and water throughout the study. During the experiment, to determine the daily feed intake, before the fresh starter offering, the feed residual was collected and recorded. The chemical composition of the food treatments was measured. Growth factors were measured at the time of entry into the experiment and at weaning day as last day of the experiment. The calves were weighed on 10-d intervals until the end of the experiment (d -60). Growth parameters were evaluated on initial day and on the final day of the experiment. Rumen samples were taken was taken and the concentration of volatile fatty acids was determined using a gas chromatography. The blood metabolites and liver enzymes concentrations were measured using commercial kits of Pars Azmoun Company and by calorimetry method with spectrophotometer. Data were analyzed using SAS statistical software and MIXED procedure with main effect of SO, and AH, and their interaction. The significance was considered at P < 0.05, and tendency was considered when P value was between 0.05 and 0.10 in the current study.
Results and Discussion:The results of the present study showed that starter intake was influenced with the interaction effect between SO and AH, and the lowest starter diet intake was for SO-AH diet (P < 0.05). The average daily gain was tended to be lower in SO-AH diet and hence the least BW was observed for this treatment at weaning time (P < 0.05). Results show that heart girth, body length, body barrel, hip width did not differ among treatments. However, wither height was reduced in calves fed SO when it was along with AH. Both SO and AH inclusion in starter diet reduced hip height in the current study. The total short chain fatty acid concentration was reduced in SO-AH treatment compared with others. Feeding forage reduced propionate and butyrate but increased acetate concentration in ruminal fluid. The lowest blood glucose concentration was found in dairy calves fed SO-AH treatment in the current study (P = 0.03). The blood concentrations of total protein were reduced, but cholesterol was increased in SO supplemented calves. The concentration of blood urea nitrogen was increased when calves fed AH in starter diet (P = 0.03). However, in contrast, the beta-hydroxybutyrate concentration in the blood of calves fed alfalfa hay was reduced (P = 0.02).
Conclusion: The experiment results indicated that supplementation of SO and AH separately in the starter diet of dairy calves had a negative effect on ruminal fermentation and hip height. By supplementing SO, an increase in serum cholesterol was observed, but it reduced the total protein in the serum. The results of blood urea concentration showed that the inclusion of AH increased its concentration; however, with respect to the beta-hydroxybutyrate concentration, it was reduced by AH inclusion in starter diet. The results showed that concurrent feeding of SO (3%) and AH (15%) in the starter diet of pre-weaning dairy calves, decreased the concentration of volatile fatty acids in rumen, blood glucose, weaning BW and wither height. Due to the current experimental conditions, the concurrent feeding of SO with AH is not recommended due to the negative effects of their interaction on growth performance, ruminal fermentation and as well as on some blood metabolites during pre-weaning period.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Dairy calves
  • forage level
  • Ruminal fermentation
  • soy oil
  1. Asadi, M. R., A. D. Forouzandeh, and P. Shakeri. 2017. Effect of alfalfa and sodium bicarbonate on starter diet of Holstein dairy calves.Animal Science Journal,30(114): 247-256. (in Persian).
  2. Ahmadian, A., F. Fattahnia, G. Taasoli, M. Akbari-Gharaei, and M. Kazemi-Bonchenari. 2018. Effect of fat supplementation (Ca-salts) in starter diets differed in rumen undegradable protein levels on performance, growth and blood metabolites of Holstein calves. Iranian Journal of Animal Science Research, 49 (1):133-143. (In Persian).
  3. Azad Shahraki, M., M. Khorvash, and E. Ghasemi. 2016. Effects of Varied Fat Supplements in Starter Diet on Rumen Parameters, Intake and Performance of Holstein dairy Calves. Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science. Isfahan University of Technology. (In Persian).
  4. Allen, M. S. 2000. Effects of diet on short-term regulation of feed intake by lactating dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science, 83(7), 1598-1624.
  5. Annison, E. F., and D. G. Armstrong. 1970. Volatile fatty acid metabolism and energy supply. In: Physiology and digestion and metabolism in ruminants. Edited by A.T. Phillipson. Newcastle upon Tyne. UK: Oriel, p 422- 437.
  6. AOAC International. 2000. Official Methods of Analysis of the AOAC International. 17th ed. Published by AOAC. Int., Gaithersburg, MD.
  7. Arjmandi, M. M., and A. TeimouriYansari. 2012. Effects of alfalfa particle size and soybean oil on Intake, digestibility, chewing activity and performance of early lactating Holstein cows. Iranian Journal of Animal Science Research, 3: 138-149. (In Persian).
  8. Baldwin, R. L., V. K. R. McLeod, and J. L. Klotz. 2004. Rumen development, intestinal frowth and hepatic metabolism in the pre- and postweaning ruminant. Journal of Dairy Science, 87:55–65.
  9. Ballou, M., and E. DePeters. 2008. Supplementing milk replacer with omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil on immunocompetence and health of Jersey calves. Journal of Dairy Science,91:3488-3500
  10. Bateman, H.G., and T.C. Jenkins. 1998. Influence of soybean oil in high fiber diets fed to nonlactating cows on ruminal unsaturated fatty acids and nutrient digestibility. Journal of Dairy Science, 81: 2451-2458.
  11. Beiranvand, H., G. R. Ghorbani, M. Khorvash, and M. Kazemi-Bonchenari. 2014. Forage and sugar in dairy calves’ starter diet and their interaction on performance, weaning age and rumen fermentation. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 98:439-445.
  12. Bergman, E. N. 1990: Energy contributions of volatile fatty acids from the gastrointestinal tract in various species. Physiological Reviews, 70:567-590
  13. Bunting, L., J. Fernandez, R. Fornea, T. White, M. Froetschel, J. Stone, and K. Ingawa. 1996. Seasonal effects of supplemental fat or undegradable protein on the growth and metabolism of Holstein calves. Journal of Dairy Science, 79:1611-1620
  14. Caffrey, P., C. Miller, P. Brophy, and D. Kelleher. 1988. The effects of method of processing of starters, tallow inclusion and roughage supplementation on the performance of early-weaned calves. Animal Feed Science and Technology,19:231-246
  15. Chalupa, W. 1991. The role of dietary fat in the productivity and health of dairy cows.In : Large Animal Clinical Nutrition. (Eds) Naylor J. M. and S.L. Ralston. Mosby year book. pp: 304-315.
  16. Clark, J. H., T. H. Klusmeyer, and M. R. Cameron. 1992. Microbial protein synthesis and flows of nitrogen fractions to the duodenum of dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 75:2304-2323.
  17. Doreau, M., and A. Ferlay. 1994. Digestion and utilization of fatty acids by ruminants. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 45:379-396.
  18. Doreau, M., and A. Ferlay. 1995. Effect of dietary lipids on nitrogen metabolism inthe rumen. A review. Livestock Production Science, 43:97-110.
  19. Doreau, M., F. Legay, and D. Bauchart. 1991. Effect of source and level of supplemental fat ontotal and ruminalorganic matter and nitrogen digestion in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 74:2233
  20. Drackley, J. K. 2008. Calf nutrition from birth to breeding. Veterinary Clinic North American Food Animal Practice, 24(1):55-86.
  21. EbnAli, A., M. Khorvash, G. R. Ghorbani, A. H. Mahdavi, M. Malekkhahi, M. Mirzaei, A. Pezeshki, and M. H. 2016. Effects of forage offering method on performance, rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility and nutritional behaviour in Holstein dairy calves. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition (Berl), 100 (5):820-827.
  22. Fasihi, H. 2013. Investigating the Interaction of starter Omega-6 to Omega-3 Ratio with Different Levels of Vitamin E and Selenium on Performance and Immunological Responses of Holstein Calves. MSc in Animal Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Isfahan University of Technology. (in Persian)
  23. Gelsinger, S. L., A. L. Heinrichs, and C. M. Jones. 2016. A meta-analysis of the effects of preweaned calf nutrition and growth on first-lactation performance. Journal of Dairy Science, 99:6206-6214.
  24. Ghasemi, E., M. Azad-Shahraki., and M. Khorvash. 2017. Effect of different fat supplements on performance of dairy calves during cold season. Journal of Dairy Science, 100:1-10.
  25. Ghorbani, H., M. Kazemi-Bonchenari, M. HosseinYazdi, and E. Mahjoubi. 2020. Effects of various fat delivery methods in starter diet on growth performance, nutrients digestibility and blood metabolites of Holstein dairy calves. Animal Feed Science and Technology, In Press. 262:114429.
  26. Hill, T. M., H. G.Bateman,J.M. Aldrich, and R. L. Schlotterbeck. 2011. Impact of various fatty acids on dairy calf performance. Professional Animal Scientist, 27:167-175.
  27. Hill, T. M., H. G. Bateman, J. M. Aldrich, J. D. Quigley, and R. L. Schlotterbeck. 2015. Inclusion of tallow and soybean oil to calf starters fed to dairy calves from birth to four months of age on calf performance and digestion. Journal of Dairy Science, 98:4882-4888.
  28. Hill, T., H. Bateman, J. Aldrich, and R. Schlotterbeck. 2009. Effects of fat concentration ofa high-protein milk replacer on calf performance. Journal of Dairy Science,92:5147-5153.
  29. Hill, T., H. Bateman, J. Aldrich, and R. Schlotterbeck. 2010. Effect of milk replacer program on digestion of nutrients in dairy calves. Journal of Dairy Science,93:1105-1115
  30. Hristov, A., M. Ivan, and T. McAllister. 2004. In vitro effects of individual fatty acids on protozoal numbers and on fermentation products in ruminal fluid from cattle fed a high-concentrate, barley-based diet. Journal of Animal Science, 82:2693-2704.
  31. Jahani-Moghadam, M., E. Mahjoubi, M. HosseinYazdi, F. C. Cardoso, and J. K. Drackley. 2015. Effects of alfalfa hay and its physical form (chopped versus pelleted)on performance of Holstein calves. Journal of Dairy Science, 98:4055–4061
  32. Jenkins, T. C. 1993. Lipid metabolism in the rumen. Journal of Dairy Science, 76:3851-3863.
  33. Kadkhoday, A, A. Riasi, M. Alikhani, M. Dehghan-Banadaky, and R. Kowsar. 2017. Effects of fat sources and dietary C18:2 to C18:3 fatty acids ratio on growth performance, ruminal fermentation and some blood components of Holstein calves. Livestock Science,1871-1413(17).
  34. Kazemi-Bonchenari, M., M. Dehghan-Banadaky, F. Fattahnia, A. Saleh-Bahmanpour, M. Jahani-Moghadam, and M. Mirzaei. 2020. Effects of linseed oil and rumen-undegradable protein: rumen-degradable protein ratio on performance of Holstein dairy calves. British Journal of Nutrition, 123:1247-1257.
  35. Kazemi-Bonchenari, M., M. Mirzaei, M. Jahani-Moghadam, A. Soltani, E. Mahjoubi, and R. A. Patton. 2016. Interactions between levels of heat-treated soybean meal and prilled fat on growth, rumen fermentation, and blood metabolites of Holstein calves. Journal of Animal Science, 94:4267-4275.
  36. Khan, M. A., D. M. Weary, and M. A. G. Von Keyserlingk. 2011. Hay intake improves performance and rumen development of calves fed higher quantities of milk. Journal of Dairy Science, 94:3547-3553.
  37. Kohn, R. A., M. M. Dinneen, and E. Russek-Cohen. 2005. Using blood urea nitrogen to predict nitrogen excretion and efficiency of nitrogen utilization in cattle, sheep, goats, horses, pigs, and rats. Journal of Animal Science, 83:79–889.
  38. Kuehn, C., D. Otterby, J. Linn, W. Olson, H. Chester-Jones, G. Marx, and J. Barmore. 1994. Theeffect of dietary energy concentration on calf performance. Journal of Dairy Science, 77: 2621-2629.
  39. Leibholz, J. 1975. Ground roughage in the diet of the early-weaned calf. Animal Production, 20: 93–100.
  40. Mirzaei, M., M. Khorvash, G. R. Ghorbani, M. Kazemi-Bonchenari, A. Riasi, A. Nabipour, and J. J. Van Den Borne. 2015. Effects of supplementation level and particle size of alfalfa hay on growth characteristics and rumen development in dairy calves. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition (Berl), 99(3):553-64.
  41. Mirzaei, M., M. Khorvash, G. R. Ghorbani, M. Kazemi-Bonchenari, and M. H. Ghaffari. 2017. Growth performance, feeding behavior, and selected blood metabolites of Holstein dairy calves fed restricted amounts of milk: No interactions between sources of finely ground grain and forage provision. Journal of Dairy Science, 100:1086- 1094.
  42. Nocek, J. E., and E. M. Kesler. Growth and rumen characteristics of Holstein steers fed pelleted or conventional diets. Journal of Dairy Science, 63:249–254.
  43. NRC (National Research Council). 2005. Mineral tolerance of animals, 2nd revised edition. The National Academy of Sciences Press, Washington DC, USA.
  44. Phillips, C. J. C. 2004. The Effects of Forage Provision and Group Size on the Behavior of Calves. Journal of dairy science, 87(5):1380–1388.
  45. Soliva, C. R., L. Meile, A. Cies’lak, M. Kreuzer, and A. Machmüller. 2004. Rumen simulation technique study on the interaction of dietary lauric and mysrustic acid supplementation in suppressing ruminalmethanogenesis. British Journal of Nutrition, 92:689-700.
  46. Tamate, H., A. D. McGilliard, N. L. Jacobson, and R. Getty. 1962. Effect of various dietaries on the anatomical development of the stomach in the calf. Journal of Dairy Science, 45:408–420.
  47. Terré, M., E. Pedrals, A. Dalmau, and A. 2013. What do preweaned and weaned calves need in the diet: a high fiber content or a forage source? Journal of Dairy Science, 96(8):5217-25
  48. Van Soest, P. J., J. B. Robertson, and B. A. Lewis. 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber and non-starch polysaccharide in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science. 74:3583-3597
  49. Warner, R. G. 1991. Nutritional factors affecting the development of a functional ruminant: a historical perspective. Pp.1-12. Cornell Nutrition Conference for Feed Manufacturers (USA).
  50. Zinn, R. 1989. Influence of level and source of dietary fat on its comparative feeding value in finishing diets for steers: Feedlot cattle growth and performance. Journal of Animal Science, 67(4):1029-1037.