تاثیر مکمل فیتوژنیک(XTRACT 6930) بر عملکرد، کیفیت تخم‌مرغ و برخی فراسنجه‌های فیزیولوژیکی مرغان تخم‌گذار

نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی- تغذیه طیور

نویسندگان

1 گروه علوم دامی، دانشکده علوم دامی و صنایع غذایی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان، ملاثانی، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه علوم دامی، دانشکده علوم دامی و صنایع غذایی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان، ملاثانی، ایران

چکیده

هدف تحقیق حاضر مطالعه اثر یک نوع مکمل فیتوژنیک حاوی کارواکرول، کاپسایسین و سینمالدئید بر عملکرد، صفات کیفی تخم­مرغ، جمعیت میکروبی روده­ کور، فراسنجه­های خونی، ایمنی و ریخت­شناسی تخمدان مرغان تخم­گذار در مرحله دوم تخم­گذاری بود. در این تحقیق از تعداد 120 قطعه مرغ تخم­گذار سویه­ های-لاین W-36 ­ با سن 70 هفته با 5 تیمار، 4 تکرار و 6 قطعه مرغ در هر تکرار در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی به مدت 10 هفته (2 هفته عادت پذیری و 8 هفته رکوردبرداری) استفاده شد. تیمار­های آزمایشی شامل سطوح صفر، 50، 100، 150 و 200 میلی­گرم در کیلوگرم مکمل فیتوژنیک بودند. نتایج نشان داد که اگر چه مکمل فیتوژنیک تأثیر معنی­داری بر مصرف خوراک و ضریب­تبدیل خوراک نداشت، اما در کل دوره آزمایش سطح 100 میلی­گرم در کیلوگرم وزن و درصد­تولید تخم­مرغ را به طور معنی­داری در مقایسه با تیمار کنترل افزایش داد (05/0­> P). ضخامت پوسته در سطح 100 میلی­گرم در کیلوگرم جیره به­طور معنی‌‌داری در مقایسه با گروه کنترل افزایش یافت (05/0 > P). جمعیت لاکتوباسیل در روده کور پرندگان دریافت کننده مکمل فیتوژنیک به­طور معنی‌داری بالاتر از تیمار کنترل بود (05/0 > P). فراسنجه­های خونی، پاسخ آنتی­بادی علیه  SRBCو فراسنجه­های تولید­مثلی مرغان تخم­گذار تحت تأثیر اعمال تیمارها قرار نگرفتند. نتایج نشان داد که افزودن100 میلی‌گرم درکیلوگرم مخلوط روغن‌های ضروری کارواکرول، کاپسایسین و سینمالدئید­ به جیره مرغان تخم­گذار نه­ تنها درصد ­تولید،­ وزن تخم­مرغ و جمعیت باکتری لاکتوباسیل روده کور را افزایش داد، بلکه باعث بهبود ضخامت پوسته تخم­مرغ­ شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Phytogenic Additive (XTRACT 6930) on Performance, Egg Quality and Some Physiological Parameters of Laying Hens

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammadreza Shahitavi 1
  • Sommayeh Salari 1
  • Mohammadreza Ghorbani 2
  • Ali Aghaei 1
1 Department of Animal Science, Animal Science and Food Technology Faculty, Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan, Mollasani, Iran
2 Department of Animal Science, Animal Science and Food Technology Faculty, Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan, Mollasani, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction[1]New alternatives for feed supplementation in poultry production are considered to improve animal health and quantitative and qualitative productivity by the phytogenic feed additives. Essential oils are a mixture of several compounds of herbal origin that can be used for animal feeding to improve its performance and health. Essential oils can act as stimulant agents of the immune system during acute or chronic inflammatory processes that can be characterized by an increase on the levels of serum globulins, which can express the metabolic and nutritional status of the animal. Moreover, essential oils may improve nutrient digestion and absorption by enzymatic stimulation and they also may exert positive effects when used in laying hens. The use of natural capsaicin extracted from red pepper has preventive effects on salmonella infection in laying hens. Cinnamaldehyde and carvacrol have also been shown to stimulate mucin secretion, thereby preventing the establishment of pathogens. These compounds in marjoram, pepper, thyme are antimicrobial agent against Clostridium spores. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the combination of essential oils of carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, capsaicin on performance, egg quality, microbial population, blood parameters, immunity and reproductive parameters of laying hens.
Materials and Methods This experiment was done with 120 laying hens (Hy-line W-36) at 70 weeks of age for 10 weeks including 2 weeks of habituation and 8 weeks of sampling in a completely randomized design with 5 treatments, 4 replicates and 6 birds per replicate. Experimental treatments included control diet without additives and diets containing 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg phytogenic supplement containing carvacrol 5%, capsaicin 2% and cinemaldehyde 3% (made by Pancosma, France). Egg weight (gr), egg production (%) and egg mass (gr/hen/day) were recorded daily. Feed consumption was measured weekly and feed conversion ratio (FCR) was calculated weekly too. At the end of weeks 2, 4, 6, and 8 of the experiment, two eggs from each replicate were randomly selected for measurement the egg qualitative traits. To investigate the effect of phytogenic supplementation on the immune system, at the beginning of 6 and 8 weeks of the experiment, 0.5 ml of 20% sheep red blood cell suspension (SRBC) in saline phosphate buffer (PBS) was injected into the breast muscle of one bird from each replicate. After 7 days of injection, blood samples was analyzed for SRBC titer. At the end of the study, one birds per replicate were killed by cervical dislocation and blood was drawn from the jugular vein. Serum was separated after centrifugation at 4500 g and 4°C for 10 min, and frozen at −20°C until further analysis was conducted for blood biochemical parameters. Serum samples were analyzed for concentrations of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL), cholesterol, glucose and triglycerides using standard kits (Zist Shimi, Tehran, Iran) with an autoanalyser (Autolab PM 4000; Medical System, Rome, Italy). Then, caecal digesta (1 g) from each bird were aseptically transferred into 9 ml of sterile saline solution and serially diluted. Lactobacilli, Coliforms, and E.Coli were grown on Rogosa–Sharpe agar, MacConkey Agar, and Eosin Methylene Blue Agar, respectively. Plates for Lactobacillus were incubated anaerobically for 48 h at 37 °C. Microbial populations for E. coli and Coliforms were counted after aerobic incubation at 37°C for 24 hours. All samples were plated in duplicate.
Results and Discussion The results of these experiments showed­ ­Feed intake and feed conversion ratio of the laying hens were not affected by dietary inclusion of different levels of phytogenic supplement. During the whole period of experiment, 100 mg/kg phytogenic supplement significantly increased egg weight and egg production. Egg quality traits including egg unit, yolk color, shell strength, shell weight, yolk weight, were not affected by phytogenic supplement but eggshell thickness of birds fed on 100 mg/kg of phytogenic feed additive increased significantly (P < 0.05). Cecal population of Lactobacillus was increased (P < 0.05) in birds fed various levels of phytogenic feed additive compared to control (P < 0.05). Blood parameters of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and LDL were not affected by the treatments. Different levels of phytogenic supplementation did not show significant effect on primary and secondary antibody response and reproductive parameters of laying hens. The results showed that not only the addition of 100 ppm of phytogenic additive to the diet of laying hens improves egg production percentage, egg weight and egg shell thickness, but also, increased cecal population of Lactobacillus.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Egg quality traits
  • laying hens
  • Performance
  • Phytogenic supplement
1-         Abou-Elkhair, R., S. Selim, and E. Hussein. 2018. Effect of supplementing layer hen diet with phytogenic feed additives on laying performance, egg quality, egg lipid peroxidation and blood biochemical constituents. Animal Nutrition, 4(4): ­394-400.
2-         Aderemi, F., O. Alabi, and O. Ayoola. 2013. Evaluating pepper (Capsicum annuum) and garlic (Allium sativum) on performance egg trait and serum parameters of old layers. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare, 3(7):­90-95.
3-         Acamovic, T., and J. D. Brooker. 2005. Biochemistry of plant secondary metabolites and their effects in animals. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 64(3): ­403-412.
4-         Agostini, P. S., D. Sola-Oriol, M. Nofrarias, A. C. Barroeta, J. Gasa, and E. G. Manzanilla. 2012. Role of in-feed clove supplementation on growth performance, intestinal microbiology, and morphology in broiler chicken. Livestock Science, 147:­ 113-118.
5-         Al-Kaissy, G. A., and Y. J. Jamel. 2009. The effect of adding thyme vulgaris and Cinnamomun zeylanicum on production performance and some blood traits in broiler chicken. Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 33(2): ­84­-90.
6-         Anand, P., K. Y. Murali, V. Tandon, P. S. Murthy, and R. Chandra. 2010. Insulinotropic effect of cinnamaldehyde on transcriptional regulation of pyruvate kinase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, and GLUT4 translocation in experimental diabetic rats. Chemico-Biological Interactions, 186(1):­ 72-81.
7-         Arpasova, H., B. Galik, C. Hrncar, M. Fik., R. Herkei, and V. Pistova. 2015. The effect of essential oils on performance of laying hens. Scientific Papers Animal Science and Biotechnologies, 48(2):­ 8-14.
8-         Bahrami, M., F. Shariatmadari, and T. M. Karimi­. 2011. Effect of dietary extract of thyme and peppermint and vitamin E supplementation on immune responses of laying hen in heat stress and content of peroxidation egg during storage. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 27: ­326-337. (In Persian)
9-         Bozkurt, M., A. Alcicek, M. Cabuk, K. Kucukyilmaz, and A. U. Catli­. 2009. Effect of an herbal essential oil mixture on growth, laying traits, and egg hatching characteristics of broiler breeder. Poultry Science, 88: ­2368-2374.
10-     Cupo, M., and W. E. Donaldson. ­1987. Chromium and vanadium effects on glucose metabolism and lipid synthesis in chicks. Poultry Science, 66(1):­ 120–126.
11-     Ding, X., Y. Yu, Z. Su, and K. Zhang. 2017. Effects of essential oils on performance, egg quality, nutrient digestibility and yolk fatty acid profile in laying hens. Animal Nutrition, 3:­ 127-131.
12-     El-Hack, M. A., and M. Alagawany. 2015. Performance, egg quality, blood profile, immune function, and antioxidant enzyme activities in laying hens fed diets with thyme powder. Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences, 24:­ 127-133.
13-     Frankiv, T., M. Voljc, J. Salobir, and V. Rezar. 2009. Use of herbs and spices and their extracts in animal nutrition. Acta Argiculturae Slovenica, 94(2): ­95-102.
14-     Ghorbani, M. R., M. Bojarpur, M. Mayahi, J. Fayazi, R. F. Tabatabaei, and S. Tabatabaei. 2013. Effect of purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) on blood lipid concentration and antioxidant status of broiler chickens. Online Journal of Veterinary Research, 17(2):­ 54-63.
15-     Hashemipor, H., H. Kermanshahi, A. Golian, A. Raji, and M. M. Van Krimpen. 2013. Effect of thymol and carvacrol by next enhance 150 ® on intestinal development of broiler chickens fed CMC containing diet. Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science, 3 (3):­ 567-576.
16-     Haselmeyer, A., J. Zentek, and R. Chizzola. 2015. Effects of thyme as a feed additive in broiler chickens on thymol in gut contents, blood plasma, liver and muscle. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 95 (3): 504-508.
17-     Jamroz, D., J. Orda, C. Kamel, A. Wiliczkiewlcz, T. Wertelecki, and J. Skorupinska. 2003. The influence of phytogenic extract on performance, nutrient digestibility, carcass characteristics and gut microbial status in broiler chickens. Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences, 12 (2):­ 583-596.
18-     Jamroz, D., A. Wiliczkiewicz, T. Wertelecki, J. Orda,­ and J. Skorupinska. 2005. Use of active substances of plant origin in chicken diets based on maize and locally grown cereals. British Poultry Science, 46 (4):­ 485-493.
19-     Jang, I. S., Y. H. Ko, S. Y. Kang, and C.Y. Lee. ­2007. Effect of a commercial essential oil on growth performance, digestive enzyme activity and intestinal microflora population in boiler chickens. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 134 (4): ­304-315.
20-     Kamato, G. P., N. P. Makunga, W. P. Ramogola, and A. M. Viljoen. 2008. A review of biological activities and phytochemistry. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 119 (3):­ 664-672.
21-     Lee, K. W., Beynen, A. C. and everts, H­. 2002. Essential oils in boiler nutrition department of nutrition, faculty of veterinary medicine, Trecht University, the Netherlands. Pp: 7-41.
22-     Lee, K. W., H. Everts, and A. C. Beyen. 2003. Dietary carvacrol lowers body gain but improves feed conversion in female broiler chickens. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 12(4): ­394-399.
23-     Lee, K.­ W., H. Everts, H. J. Kappert, H. Wouterse, A. Frehner, and A. C. Beynen. 2004. Cinnamanaldehyde, but not thymol, counteracts the carboxymethyl cellulose induced growth depression in female broiler chickens. International Journal of Poultry Science, 3(9): ­608-612.
24-     Lis-Balchin, M. 2003. Feed additives as alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters: botanicals. Page 333-352 In Proc. International Symposium on Digestive Physiology in Pigs, Banff AB, Canada. University of Alberta.
25-     Lokaewmanee, ­K., K. E. Yamauchi, T. Komori, and K. Saito. 2010. Effects on egg yolk colour of paprika or paprika combined with marigold flower extracts. Italian Journal of Animal Science, 9(4): 356-359.
26-     Lokaewmanee, K. 2019. Effect of chili leaf powder on laying hen performance, egg quality and egg yolk cholesterol levels. Journal of Poultry Science, 18(4):­ 168-173.
27-     Miles, R. D., G .D. Butcher, P. R. Henry, and R. C. Littell. 2006. Effect of antibiotic growth promoters on broiler performance, intestinal growth parameters, and quantitative morphology. International Journal of Poultry Science, 85(3): ­476-485.
28-     Moeini, M. M., S. H. Ghazi, S. Sadeghi, and M. Malekizadeh. 2013. The effect of red pepper (Capsicum annuum) and marigold flower (Tageteserectus) powder on egg production, egg yolk color and some blood metabolites of laying hens. Journal of Applied Animal Science, 3(2):­ 301-305.
29-     Mohebbifar, A., and M. Torki. 2010. Effects of adding mixed powder of garlic and thyme to diets included graded levels of rice bran on productive performance of laying hens and egg quality characteristics. Advances in Environmental Biology, 4(3):­ 469-476.
30-     Moraleco, D. D., J. K.Valentim, L. G. Silva, H. H. D­. A. Lima, T. M. Bitencourtt, and G. M. Dallago. ­2019. Egg quality of laying hens fed diets with plant extracts. Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences, 41.
31-     Platel, K., and K. Srinivasan. 2003. Digestive stimulant action of spices: A myth or reality. Indian Medicine, 119(5): 167-179.
32-     Pilevar, M., J. Arshami,­ A. Golian, ­and M. R. Basami.­ 2010. The effects of different sources and levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3) on immune and reproduction system in leghorn pullet chicks. Page 3928-3931. The 4th Congress on Animal Science. University of Tehran, Iran. (In Persian).
33-     Pirgozliev, V., S. C. Mansbridge, S. P. Rose, A. M. Mackenzie, A. Beccaccia, F. Karadas, and­ D. Bravo. 2019. Dietary essential oils improve feed efficiency and hepatic antioxidant content of broiler chickens. Animal, 13(3):­ 502-508.
34-     Renema, R. A., F. E. Robinson, H. H. Oosterhoff,­ J. J. Feddes,­ and J. L. Wilson. 2001. Effect of phtostimulatory light intensity on ovarian morphology and carcass traits at sexual maturity in modern and antique egg-type pullets. Poultry Science, 80:­ 47-56.
35-     Roofchaei, A., V. Rezaeipour, S.Vatandour, and F. Zaefarian. 2019. Influence of dietary carbohydrases, individually or in combination with phytase or an acidifier, on performance, gut morphology and microbial population in broiler chickens fed a wheat-based diet. Animal Nutrition, 5(1):­ 63-67.
36-     Saki, A. A., H. Aliarabi, S. A. H. Siyar, J. Salari, and M. Hashemi. 2014. Effect of a phytogenic feed additive on performance, ovarian morphology, serum lipid parameters and egg sensory quality in laying hen. Veterinary Research Forum, 5(4):­ 287-293.
37-     Silversides, F.G., and P. Villeneuve. 1994. Is the Haugh unit correction for egg weight valid for eggs stored at room temperature? Poultry Science, 73(1):­ 50-55.
38-     SAS Institute. 2005. SAS Users guide: Statistics. Version 9.1. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC.
39-     Taki, A., S. Salari, M. Bojarpor, M. Sari, and M. Taghizade. 2013. The effect of foeniculum vulgare essence on production performance, egg quality and reproductive parameters of laying hens. Iranian Journal of Animal Science Research, 6:­ 140-149. (In Persian).
40-     Tatli, O., I. E. ­Nikerel, and B. S. Ozdemir. 2015. Evaluation of metabolite extraction protocols and determination of physiological response to drought stress via reporter metabolites in model plant Brachypodium distachyon. Turkish Journal of Botany, 39(6): 1042-1050.
41-     Tamam, S. M., M. S. Abdel Hamid, M. H. Samah, and A. N. Marwa. 2017. The anti-viral and immunomodulatory activity of cinnamon zeylanicum against" NDV" newcastle disease virus in chickens. International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research, 32(2):­ 251-262.
42-     Torki, M., M. Akbari, and K. Kaviani. 2015. Single and combined effects of zinc and cinnamon essential oil in diet on productive performance, egg quality traits, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition. International Journal of Biometeorology, 59(9):­1169-1177.
43-     Tschirch, H. 2000. The use of natural plants extracts as production enhancers in modern animal rearing practices. Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Rolniczej Wroclaw, Zootechnika. 25:­25-39.
44-     Upadhyaya, I., A. Upadhyay, A. Kollanoor-Johny, S. Mooyottu, S. A. Baskaran, H. B. Yin, and K. Venkitanarayanan. 2015. In feed supplementation of trans-cinnamaldehyde reduces layer chicken egg borne transmission of Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis. Applied Environmental Microbiology, 81(9): 2985-2994.
45-     Windisch, W., K. Schedle, C. Plitzner, and A. Kroismayr. 2008. Use of phytogenic products as feed additives for swine and poultry. Journal of Animal Science, 86:­ 140-148.
46-     Zeng, Z., S. Zhang, H. Wang, and ­X. Piao. 2015. Essential oil and aromatic plants as feed additives in non-ruminant nutrition: a review. Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology, 6(1):­7.