اثر تزریق داخل تخم مرغی مواد مغذی مختلف و 36 ساعت گرسنگی پس از تفریخ بر قابلیت هچ، فرآسنجه های خونی، مورفولوژی روده و عملکرد جوجه های گوشتی

نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی- تغذیه طیور

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان

2 دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان

3 جهاد کشاورزی کرمان

چکیده

این تحقیق به منظور مطالعه قابلیت تغذیه جنینی بر درصد جوجه درآوری، وزن اولیه بعد از هچ، عملکرد رشد، فراسنجه های خونی، سیستم ایمنی جوجه های گوشتی و مرفولوژی پرزهای روده انجام شد. در این مطالعه 240 عدد تخم مرغ بارور سویه گوشتی راس 308 (سن گله مادر 28 هفتگی)، در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی با 5 تیمار مورد استفاده قرار گرفتند. به هر تیمار 3 تکرار و به هر تکرار 16 عدد تخم مرغ اختصاص داده شد. تیمارها عبارت بودند از بدون تزریق (شاهد 1)، تزریق 7/0 میلی لیتر آب مقطر (شاهد ۲) و یا محلول اسید های آمینه، دکستروز 10 درصد و یا دکستروز 20 درصد به مایع آمنیوتیک تخم مرغ های بارور در روز 5/17 انکوباسیون. جوجه ها بعد از هچ به مدت 36 ساعت از دسترسی به خوراک محروم بودند. وزن تولد در تیمار اسید آمینه نسبت به تیمار بدون تزریق و تزریق آب مقطر به طور معنیداری بیشتر بود. کمترین میانگین وزنی و مصرف خوراک در کل دوره پرورش مربوط به تیمار بدون تزریق بود. تیمارها تاثیری معنیداری بر ضریب تبدیل غذایی نداشتند. میزان گلوکز خون جوجهها پس از هچ در تیمار تزریق دکستروز 20 درصد نسبت به تزریق آب مقطر بیشتر بود. همچنین میزان تریگلیسرید در تیمار تزریق آب مقطر بیشترین مقدار را نشان داد. تزریق اسید آمینه و دکستروز 10 و 20 درصد سبب افزایش وزن نسبی تیموس (در سن یک و 3 روزگی) گردید همچنین بیشترین وزن نسبی بورس در سن یک روزگی در تیمار تزریق دکستروز 10 درصد مشاهده شد که البته با تیمار دکستروز 20 درصد اختلاف معنیداری نداشت. تزریق دکستروز 20 درصد سبب افزایش طول پرز نسبت به سایر تیمارها در سن سه روزگی گردید. بر اساس نتایج این آزمایش، به نظر می‌رسد تزریق مواد مغذی می‌تواند در بهبود عملکرد جوجه‌ها موثر باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of in ovo injection of different nutrients and 36 h starvation after hatch on hatchability, blood metabolites, intestinal morphology and growth performance of broiler chicks

نویسندگان [English]

  • Negin Amiri 1
  • mohamad salarmoini 2
  • Sima Tasharrofi 3
1 Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman
2 Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman
3 Consultant of agricultural organization of Kerman
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Many birds do not have access to feed until 48 h after hatching (27). In ovo injection technology is a practical means for safe introduction of nutrients into developing embryos, including amino acids, carbohydrates, vitamins, L-carnitine, and hormones which may benefit post-hatch growth and BW gain (19, 36). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of in ovo injection of amino acids and dextrose, on hatchability, growth performance, blood metabolites, immune organs and intestinal morphology of the broiler chicks.

Materials and methods: The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with 5 treatments, 3 replicates of 16 fertile eggs from Ross 308 breeders (28 Week old). Treatments consisted of control (no injection) and injection of 0.7 ml of different nutrients into the amniotic sac of fertile eggs on 17.5th day of incubation including: distilled water (sham), amino acids, dextrin 10% and dextrin 20%. The injection point from the broad end of the egg which was disinfected with alcohol and then 0.7 ml of each solution was injected into the amnion, using a 23- gauge needle with depth of 25 mm. The holes were then sealed using commercial glue. Hatched chicks were fasted for 36 hours. Body weight, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were recorded weekly. On days 1 and 3, blood samples were collected from one chick per replicate to determine serum metabolites (glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol,high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL)). On days 1, 3, 7, 14 and 42, one bird per replicate was slaughtered and the relative weight of the immune organs (bursa of Fabricius, spleen and thymus) was determined. On day 3, villus height, crypt depth and villus height to crypt depth ratio were also measured.

Results and Discussion: The results showed that in ovo injection of amino acids can led to heavier birth weight compared to sham and control treatments (P=0.05) . Chicks hatched from control eggs (no injection) showed the lowest significant weight gain and feed intake. Different treatments had no significant effect on feed conversion ratio. Improved growth performance could be attributed to increase in glycogen stores during the prenatal period (39). Because the late-term embryo, orally consumes the amniotic fluid (comprised primarily of water and albumen protein) prior to piping, in ovo injection of dextrose, amino acids or albumin may help to overcome any nutrient deficiency that may limit embryonic growth. Thus, it was hypothesized that administration of carbohydrates to the amnion may improve the energy level of the broiler embryo and reduce internal energy consumption (proteins and lipids) during piping, thereby increasing chick BW (45). Glucose is the major energy source in living organisms. Maintenance of glucose homeostasis during few days pre and post hatch is a great challenge in the chick’s life. The frequent activity of embryos implies a large amount of energy consumption, and higher glucose demand for fuel (45, 46).
Serum glucose level after hatch was significantly higher in treatment dextrin 20% compared to sham treatment (P

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Amino acid
  • Amniotic sac
  • Broiler
  • Dextrin
  • In-ovo injection
1- Al‐Murrani, W. 1982. Effect of injecting amino acids into the egg on embryonic and subsequent growth in the domestic fowl. British Poultry Science, 23(2):171-174.
2- Aviagen. 2007. Nutrition Specification for Ross 308. Aviagen Limited, Newbridge Scotland.
3- Bhanja, S., A. Mandal, S. Agarwal, and S. Majumdar. 2008. Effect of in ovo glucose injection on the post hatch-growth, digestive organ development and blood biochemical profiles in broiler chickens. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, 78(8):869-872.
4- Bigot, K., S. Mignon-Grasteau, M. Picard, and S. Tesseraud. 2003. Effects of delayed feed intake on body, intestine, and muscle development in neonate broilers. Poultry Science, 82(5): 781-788.
5- Careghi, C., K. Tona, O. Onagbesan, J. Buyse, E. Decuypere, and V. Bruggeman. 2005. The effects of the spread of hatch and interaction with delayed feed access after hatch on broiler performance until seven days of age. Poultry Science, 84(8): 1314-1320.
6- Chamani, M., S. Tasharrofi, F. Forudi, A. Sadeghi, and M. Aminafshar. 2012. Evaluation the effects of in-ovo injection of different nutrients on hatch percentage, performance and carcass parameters of broilers. Annals of Biological Research. 3(7).
7- Christensen, V., J. Grimes, W. Donaldson, S. Lerner. 2000. Correlation of body weight with hatchling blood glucose concentration and its relationship to embryonic survival. Poultry Science, 79(12): 1817-1822.
8- Dibner, J., and J. Richards. 2004. The digestive system: Challenges and opportunities. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 13(1): 86-93.
9- Dibner, J., C. Knight, M. Kitchell, C. Atwell, A. Downs, and F. Ivey. 1998. Early feeding and development of the immune system in neonatal poultry. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 7(4): 425-436.
10- Dibner, J., J. Richards, and C. Knight. 2008. Microbial imprinting in gut development and health. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 17(1): 174-188.
11- Dos Santos, T., A. Corzo, M. Kidd, C. McDaniel, R. Torres Filho, and L. Araujo. 2010. Influence of in ovo inoculation with various nutrients and egg size on broiler performance. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 19(1): 1-12.
12- Ebrahimnezhad, Y., M. Salmanzadeh, H. Aghdamshahryar, R. Beheshti, and H. Rahimi. 2011. The effects of in ovo injection of glucose on characters of hatching and parameters of blood in broiler chickens. Annals of Biological Research, 2(3): 347-351.
13- Geyra, A., Z. Uni, and D. Sklan. 2001a. Enterocyte dynamics and mucosal development in the posthatch chick. Poultry Science, 80: 776-782.
14- Geyra, A., Z. Uni, and D. Sklan. 2001b. The effect of fasting at different ages on growth and tissue dynamics in the small intestine of the young chick. British Poultry Science, 86:53–61.
15- Hazelwood, R., and F. Lorenz. 1959. Effects of fasting and insulin on carbohydrate metabolism of the domestic fowl. American Journal of Physiology, 197(1): 47-51.
16- Herfiana, I. 2007. The effect of Glutamine, Dextrin and Its Combination Through In Ovo Feeding on Immune Response, Blood Profiles and The Carcass Composition of Male Broiler Chicken. MSc thesis, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Indonesia.
17- Høiby, M., A. Aulie, and P. O. Bjonnes. 1987. Anaerobic metabolism in fowl embryos during normal incubation. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 86(1): 91-94.
18- Hulet, R. 2007. Symposium: Managing the Embryo for Performance Managing Incubation. Poultry Science, 86(5): 1017-1019.
19- Kadam, M., S. Bhanja, A. Mandal, R. Thakur, P. Vasan, A. Bhattacharyya, and J. Tyagi. 2008. Effect of in ovo threonine supplementation on early growth, immunological responses and digestive enzyme activities in broiler chickens. British Poultry Science, 49(6): 736-741.
20- Keralapurath, M., A. Corzo, R. Pulikanti, W. Zhai, and E. Peebles. 2010. Effects of in ovo injection of L-carnitine on hatchability and subsequent broiler performance and slaughter yield. Poultry Science, 89(7): 1497-1501.
21- Kidd, M. T., J. W. Taylor, C. M. Page, B. D. Lott, and T. N. Chamblee. 2007. Hatchery feeding of starter diets to broiler chicks. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 16: 234- 239.
22- Leitao, R. A., N. S. M. Leandro, M. B. Cafe, J. H. Stringhini, A. A. Pedroso, and L. da Silva Chaves. 2008. Inoculaçao de glicose em ovos embrionados de frango de corte: parametros de incubaçao e desempenho inicial. Ciencia Animal Brasileira, 9(4):847-855.
23- Lopez, G., and S. Leeson. 1995. Response of broiler breeders to low-protein diets. 1. Adult breeder performance. Poultry Science, 74(4): 685-695.
24- Lu, J., J. McMurtry, and C. Coon. 2007. Developmental changes of plasma insulin, glucagon, insulin-like growth factors, thyroid hormones, and glucose concentrations in chick embryos and hatched chicks. Poultry Science, 86(4): 673-683.
25- Moore, D., P. Ferket, and P. Mozdziak. 2005. Early post-hatch fasting induces satellite cell self-renewal. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 142(3): 331-339.
26- Mousavi, S. N., M. Shivazad, M. Chamani, E. A. Sadeghi, and H. Lotfolahiyan. 2008. Study of in ovo feeding as an early nutrition method. Journal of Agricultural Science, 5: 417-425. (In Persian).
27- Noy, Y., and D. Sklan. 1999. Different types of early feeding and performance in chicks and poults. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 8(1): 16-24.
28- Noy, Y., and D. Sklan. 2001. Yolk and exogenous feed utilization in the posthatch chick. Poultry Science, 80(10): 1490-1495.
29- Ohta, Y., M. Kidd, and T. Ishibashi. 2001. Embryo growth and amino acid concentration profiles of broiler breeder eggs, embryos, and chicks after in ovo administration of amino acids. Poultry Science, 80(10): 1430-1436.
30- Ohta, Y., N. Tsushima, K. Koide, M. Kidd, and T. Ishibashi. 1999. Effect of amino acid injection in broiler breeder eggs on embryonic growth and hatchability of chicks. Poultry Science, 78(11): 1493-1498.
31- Ostaszewski, P., and S. Nissen. 1988. Effect of hyperglucagonemia on whole-body leucine metabolism in immature pigs before and during a meal. American Journal of Physiology, 254:372–377.
32- Pilarski, R., M. Bednarczyk, M. Lisowski, A. Rutkowski, Z. Bernacki, M. Wardeńska, and K. Gulewicz. 2005. Assessment of the effect of α-galactosides injected during embryogenesis on selected chicken traits. Folia Biologica, 53(2):13-20.
33- Salahi, A., S. N. Mousavi, F. Foroudi, M. M. Khabisi, and M. Norozi. 2011. Effects of in ovo injection of butyric acid in broiler breeder eggs on hatching parameters, chick quality and performance. Global Veterinaria, 7: 468-477.
34- SAS Institute. 2005. Statistical Analysis System, version 9.1 (release TS1M3). SAS Institute Inc., Cary North Carolina United States.
35- Shimi, A. 2001. Veterinary Immunology. Publications of the Veterinary Organization of Iran. (In Persian).
36- Tako, E., P. Ferket, and Z. Uni. 2004. Effects of in ovo feeding of carbohydrates and beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate on the development of chicken intestine. Poultry Science, 83(12): 2023-2028.
37- Tasharofi, S., and S. Rahimi. 2005. Effects of in ovo injection of nutrients on the growth of gastrointestinal and performance in broilers. Agricultural Sciences and Technology, 20(5): 111- 120. (In Persian).
38- Uni, Z., and R. Ferket. 2004. Methods for early nutrition and their potential. World's Poultry Science Journal, 60(01): 101-111.
39- Uni, Z., P. Ferket, E. Tako, and O. Kedar. 2005. In ovo feeding improves energy status of late-term chicken embryos. Poultry Science, 84(5): 764-770.
40- Uni, Z., S. Ganot, and D. Sklan. 1998. Posthatch development of mucosal function in the broiler small intestine. Poultry Science, 77: 75-82.
41- Vieira, S., and E. Moran. 1999. Effects of egg of origin and chick post-hatch nutrition on broiler live performance and meat yields. World's Poultry Science Journal, 55(02): 125-142.
42- Willemsen, H., M. Debonne, Q. Swennen, N. Everaert, C. Careghi, H. Han, and E. Decuypere. 2010. Delay in feed access and spread of hatch: importance of early nutrition. World's Poultry Science Journal, 66(02): 177-188.
43- Yegani, M., and D. R. Korver. 2008. Factors affecting intestinal health in poultry. Poultry Science, 87(10): 2052-2063.
44- Yi, G., G. Allee, C. Knight, and J. Dibner. 2005. Impact of glutamine and oasis hatchling supplement on growth performance, small intestinal morphology, and immune response of broilers vaccinated and challenged with Eimeria maxima. Poultry Science, 84(2): 283-293.
45- Zhai, W., D. Rowe, and E. Peebles. 2011a. Effects of commercial in ovo injection of carbohydrates on broiler embryogenesis. Poultry Science, 90(6): 1295-1301.
46- Zhai, W., P. Gerard, R. Pulikanti, and E. Peebles. 2011b. Effects of in ovo injection of carbohydrates on embryonic metabolism, hatchability, and subsequent somatic characteristics of broiler hatchlings. Poultry Science, 90(10): 2134-2143.