Effect of Heat Processing on Nutrient Digestibility and Metabolizable Energy of Canola Seed in Broiler Chickens

Document Type : Research Articles


Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.


Introduction: During the past decades, rapeseed production, including canola varieties, has surpassed peanut, sunflower, and even cottonseed in production, and ranks second among oilseed crops worldwide. Due to its drought endurance, canola may be the preferable grain for cultivation in several locations of Iran. Canola seed (CS) is an economic feed ingredient containing well-balanced protein (19 to 22%) and a high oil content, up to 45% in some cases. Apart from the oil content of CS, its concentration of dietary fiber, glucosinolates, and tannins are of concern. Canola has less glucosinolates and erucic acid than rapeseed. It, resulting in a higher level of vital nutrients and higher nutrient density. The nutrient composition and presence of anti-nutritional factors in CS may also affect its quality and feeding value for poultry. However, the presence of some glucosinolates, erucic acid, and other undesirable compounds such as phytates, polyphenols, and soluble non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs) may reduce nutrient digestibility and performance of the chickens. Heat process affects the rate of protein denaturation, starch gelatinization, digestive enzymes accessibility, bacterial counts and toxin degradation of feed. On the other hand, starch gelatinization by heat processing may increase amylase effects to break the chains of amylose and amylopectin, which in turn increases the digestibility of less digestible carbohydrates, improves metabolizable energy and digestibility of amino acids in beans, soybeans, peas and canola. Some concerns have been raised about the inclusion levels of CS in broiler diets. This experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of processing method on apparent metabolizable energy (AME), apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen (AMEn), apparent dry matter digestibility (ADMD), and apparent nutrients digestibility (and) of CS (Nafis variety) in broiler chickens.
Materials and Methods: This study was designed to determine the nutrient digestibility and, AMEn value of crud and heat processed CS. The CS used in this research was of the Nafis variety, which was sourced from the Astan Quds Razavi farm, Mashhad, Iran. The obtained CS sample was divided to three equal subsamples. One part was unprocessed, second part was micronized; one hour before processing CS was moistened by 20% of the weight, and then placed in a single layer on a vibrating conveyor belt under the infrared emission source at a speed of 6.25 cm/s until the surface temperature of the grain should reach 130C, and third part super-conditioned under humidity of 16% and temperature of 75-85C for 3-4 minutes. A total of 48, day-old Ross 308 male broiler chicks was obtained from a commercial hatchery. Chicks were reared and housed in battery brooders in a room. From day one to 10 and 11 to 15, chicks had ad libitum access to conventional corn-soybean meal starter and grower diets, respectively, to meet the nutrient specification of the strain as recommended by Ross 308 manual. A common corn-soybean meal diet was formulated to serve as the reference diet to meet or exceed the nutrient requirements of broiler chicks as described for the Ross 308. The CS samples (row, micronized, and super-conditioning) were incorporated into the reference diet at a 40% inclusion rate (60% reference diet and 40% CS). The digestion trial included a 4-day preliminary period in 16–19d of age, followed by 4 days of recorded total feed consumption and excreta collection. The feed was provided ad libitum during the preliminary and the collection period. During the collection period (20-23d of age) total feed intake was measured, and excreta from each cage were collected twice a day, pooled, and kept frozen at -20oC until subsequent analyses. The excreta samples were oven-dried at 60C for 72 hours to determine dry matter content. The dried excreta and diet samples were ground through 20 mesh screens, and nutrient content was determined according to (AOAC, 2000). The gross energy of the dried excreta and diet samples was measured with Bomb-calorimeter (Model 1266, PARR). The apparent nutrients digestibility, AME and AMEn of the reference and test diets were determined. Accordingly, apparent nutrients digestibility, AME and AMEn of the CS was calculated as: ”.
Results and Discussion: The average of dry matter, crude protein, ether extract, fiber, ash, and gross energy for CS were 96.20, 17.70, 46.60, 6.00, 4.11%, and 7137 kcal/kg, respectively. The apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, crude fat and AMEn for raw CS in broiler chickens were 54.28±1.19%, 69.42±1.13%, 77.1±1.32%, and 4673±268 kcal/kg of dry matter. Processing of canola by micronization and super-conditioning method numerically increased the dry matter content of CS by 2.46% and 0.88%, respectively. Crude fat and crude protein content also changed with a similar trend to dry matter content. The effect of canola processing on AME and AMEn in broilers was not significantly (P> 0.05). Micronizing process of CS increased ADMD and AMEn values of 7.47% and 117 kcal/kg than non-processed seed, respectively. Super-conditioning process was less effective than micronization on improving CS nutrient digestibility and AMEn values.
Conclusion: The outcomes of the present study showed that spit non-significant effect of heat processing on energy value and nutrients digestibility of CS (Nafis variety) that might be due to better tolerance of chickens fed recent varieties of CS. However, the change in nutrients digestibility and AMEn values of CS with processing by super- conditioning method was poor, a trend of improving nutrient digestibility and AMEn values were seen in micronize process. More research is needed to clarify the response of the chickens when CS in the raw, micronized or conditioned forms.


Main Subjects

  1. Abdollahi, M., Zaefarian, F., Hall, L., & Jendza, (2020). Feed acidification and steam-conditioning temperature influence nutrient utilization in broiler chickens fed wheat-based diets. Poultry Science, 99(10),5037-5046. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2020.06.056
  2. Abdollahi, M., Ravindran, V., Wester, T., Ravindran, G., & Thomas, (2010). Influence of conditioning temperature on performance, apparent metabolisable energy, ileal digestibility of starch and nitrogen and the quality of pellets, in broiler starters fed maize-and sorghum-based diets. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 162(3-4),106-115. doi:10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2010.08.017
  3. Ackman, R. (1990). Canola fatty acidsan ideal mixture for health, nutrition, and food use. pp. 81-98 in Canola and rapeseed. Springer.
  4. Alonso, R., Grant, G., Frühbeck, G., & Marzo, F. (2002). Muscle and liver protein metabolism in rats fed raw or heat-treated pea seeds. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 13(10),611-618. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0955-2863(02)00186-9
  5. AOAC. (2002). Official methods of analysis. 17th Washington, DC, USA: AOAC International.
  6. Assadi, E., Janmohammadi, H., Taghizadeh, A., & Alijani, S. (2011). Nutrient composition of different varieties of full-fat canola seed and nitrogen-corrected true metabolizable energy of full-fat canola seed with or without enzyme addition and thermal processing. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 20(1),95-101. https://doi.org/10.3382/japr.2010-00201
  7. Attar, A., Kermanshahi, H., & Golian, A. (2017). Effects of conditioning and sodium bentonite on performance, relative weight of different organs and blood parameters of broiler chickens in grower period. Animal Production, 19(2),441-453. https://doi.org/10.22059/jap.2017.61708
  8. Aviagen. (2019). Ross 308: broiler nutrition specification. H. Aviagen Inc., AL, ed, USA.
  9. Barekatain, M., Wu, S., Toghyani, M., & Swick, R. (2015). Effects of grinding and pelleting condition on efficiency of full-fat canola seed for replacing supplemental oil in broiler chicken diets. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 207,140-14 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2015.05.020
  10. Bayley, H., & Summers, J. (1975). Nutritional evaluation of extruded full-fat soybeans and rapeseeds using pigs and chickens. Canadian Journal of Animal Science, 55(3),441-450. https://doi.org/10.4141/cjas75-053
  11. Bell, J. (1993). Factors affecting the nutritional value of canola meal: A review. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 73(4),689-697. https://doi.org/10.4141/cjas93-075
  12. Brand, T., Van der Merwe, J., & Brandt, D. (1999). Full-fat canola seed meal as a protein source for weaner and grower–finisher pig. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 39(1),21-28. https://doi.org/10.1071/EA98100
  13. Brand, T., De Brabander, L., Van Schalkwyk, S., Pfister, B., & Hays, P. (2000). The true metabolisable energy content of canola oilcake meal and full-fat canola seed for ostriches (Struthio camelus). British Poultry Science, 41(2),201-203. https://doi.org/10.1080/713654905
  14. Camire, M., Camire, A., & Krumhar, K. (1990). Chemical and nutritional changes in foods during extrusion. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 29(1):35-57. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408399009527513
  15. Chibowska, M., Smulikowska, S., & Pastuszewska, B. (2000). Metabolisable energy value of rapeseed meal and its fractions for chickens as affected by oil and fibre content. Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences, 9(2),371-378. https://doi.org/10.22358/jafs/68054/2000
  16. Douglas, J., Sullivan, T., Abdul-Kadir, R., & Rupnow, J. (1991). Influence of infrared (micronization) treatment on the nutritional value of corn and low-and high-tannin sorghum. Poultry Science, 70(7),1534-1539. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0701534
  17. Fenwick, G., Spinks, E., Wilkinson, A., Heaney, R., & Legoy, M. (1986). Effect of processing on the antinutrient content of rapeseed. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 37(8),735. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740370805
  18. Haq, A., & Akhtar, M. (2004). Poultry farming. Higher Education Commission.
  19. Hill, F., & Anderson, D., (1958). Comparison of metabolizable energy and productive energy determinations with growing chicks. Journal of Nutrition, 64,587-603.
  20. Hill, R. (1991). Rapeseed meal in the diets of ruminants. Nutrition abstracts and reviews. Series B, Livestock Feeds and Feeding (United Kingdom).
  21. Huang, S., Liang, M., Lardy, G., Huff, H., Kerley, M., & Hsieh, F. (1995). Extrusion processing of rapeseed meal for reducing glucosinolates. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 56(1-2),1-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-8401(95)00826-9
  22. Igbasan, F., & Guenter, W. (1996). The enhancement of the nutritive value of peas for broiler chickens: An evaluation of micronization and dehulling processes. Poultry Science, 75(10),1243-1252. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0751243
  23. Igbasan, F., & Guenter, W. (1997). The influence of micronization, dehulling, and enzyme supplementation on the nutritional value of peas for laying hens. Poultry Science 76(2),331-337. https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/76.2.331
  24. Jeunink, J., & Cheftel, J. (1979). Chemical and physicochemical changes in field bean and soybean proteins texturized by extrusion. Journal of Food Science, 44(5),1322-1325. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1979.tb06430.x
  25. Jiménez, ME., González, AJM., González, SA., Lázaro, R., & Mateos, G. (2009). Effect of dietary fiber and fat on performance and digestive traits of broilers from one to twenty-one days of age. Poultry Science, 88(12),2562-2574. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2009-00179
  26. JM, GA., Jiménez, ME., Lázaro, R. & Mateos, G.  (2007). Effect of type of cereal, heat processing of the cereal, and inclusion of fiber in the diet on productive performance and digestive traits of broilers. Poultry Science, 86(8),1705-1715. https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/86.8.1705
  27. Kiczorowska, B., Samolińska, W., & andrejko, D. (2016). Effect of micronized pea seeds (Pisum sativum) as a substitute of soybean meal on tissue fatty acid composition and quality of broiler chicken meat. Animal Science Journal, 87(11),1396-1406. https://doi.org/10.1111/asj.12592
  28. Lawrence, T. (1973). An evaluation of the micronization process for preparing cereals for the growing pig. 1. Effects on digestibility and nitrogen retention. Animal Science 16(2),99-107. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003356100029913
  29. Lee, K., & Sim, J. (1995). Metabolizable energy and amino acid availability of full-fat seeds, meals, and oils of flax and canola. Poultry Science, 74(8):1341-1348. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0741341
  30. Leeson, S., & Summers, J. (2001). Nutrition of the chicken. No. 04; SF494, L4 2001., Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1H 6N8.
  31. Leeson, S., & Summers, J. (2005). Commercial poultry Nutrition, university books. Guelph, Ontario, Canada:177-178.
  32. Liang, M., Huang, S., Huff, H., Kerley, M. & Hsieh, F. (2002). Extrusion cooking of rapeseed meal for feeding value improvement. Applied Engineering in Agriculture, 18(3),325. https://DOI:13031/2013.8584
  33. Liu, S., Selle, P., & Cowieson, A. (2013). Influence of conditioning temperatures on amino acid digestibility coefficients at four small intestinal sites and their dynamics with starch and nitrogen digestion in sorghum-based broiler diets. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 185(1-2),85-93. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2013.07.008
  34. Lopez, G. & Leeson, S. (2007). Relevance of nitrogen correction for assessment of metabolizable energy with broilers to forty-nine days of age. Poultry Science, 86(8),1696-1704. https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/86.8.1696
  35. Maheshwari, P., Stanley, D. & Gray, J. (1981). Detoxification of rapeseed products. Journal of Food Protection, 44(6),459-470. https://doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-44.6.459
  36. Marzo, F., Alonso, R., Urdaneta, E., Arricibita, F., & Ibanez, F. (2002). Nutritional quality of extruded kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris var. Pinto) and its effects on growth and skeletal muscle nitrogen fractions in rats. Journal of Animal Science, 80(4),875-879. https://doi.org/10.2527/2002.804875x
  37. Najib, H., & Al-Khateeb, S. (2004). The effect of incorporating different levels of locally produced canola seeds (Brassica napus, L.) in the diet of laying hen. International Journal of Poultry Science, 3(7),490-496. https://DOI: 3923/ijps.2004.490.496
  38. Netto, M.T., Massuquetto, A., Krabbe, E., Surek, D., Oliveira, S., & Maiorka, A. (2019). Effect of conditioning temperature on pellet quality, diet digestibility, and broiler performance. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 28(4),963-973. https://doi.org/10.3382/japr/pfz056
  39. Newkirk, R. & Classen, H. (2002). The effects of toasting canola meal on body weight, feed conversion efficiency, and mortality in broiler chickens. Poultry Science, 81(6):815-825. https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/81.6.815
  40. Nwokolo, E., & Sim, J. (1989a). Barley and full-fat canola seed in broiler diets. Poultry Science, 68(10),1374-1380. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0681374
  41. Nwokolo, E. & Sim, J. (1989b). Barley and full-fat canola seed in layer diets. Poultry Science, 68(11),1485-1489. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0681485
  42. Salavati, S., & Golian, A. (2021). Determination of metabolisable energy of wheat processed at different temperatures and effect of their inclusion in mash diets with and without enzyme supplementation on small intestine morphology and growth performance of broiler chickens during 11-24 days. Iranian Journal of Animal Science Research, 3(2),275-290. (In Persian).
  43. Salmon, R., Stevens, V., & Ladbrooke, B. (1988). Full-fat canola seed as a feedstuff for turkeys. Poultry Science, 67(12),1731-1742. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0671731
  44. Savage, G., Smith, W., & Briggs, P. (1980). A note on the influence of micronization and polyethylene glycol on the nutritional value of brown sorghum for growing pigs. Animal Science, 30(1),157-160. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003356100023904
  45. Shen, H., Summers, J., & Leeson, S. (1983). The influence of steam pelleting and grinding on the nutritive value of canola rapeseed for poultry. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 8(4),303-311. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-8401(83)90050-0
  46. Sibbald, I. (1977). The true metabolizable energy values for poultry of rapeseed and of the meal and oil derived therefrom. Poultry Science, 56(5),1652-1656. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0561652
  47. Smithard, R., & Eyre, M. (1986). The effects of dry extrusion of rapeseed with other feedstuffs upon its nutritional value and anti‐thyroid activity. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 37(2),136-140. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740370206
  48. Svihus, B., Uhlen, A., & Harstad, O. (2005). Effect of starch granule structure, associated components and processing on nutritive value of cereal starch: A review. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 122(3-4),303-320. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2005.02.025
  49. Szymeczko, R., Topolinski, T., Burlikowska, K., Piotrowska, A., Boguslawska, T., & Blaszyk, J. (2010). Effects of different levels of rape seeds in the diet on performance, blood and bone parameters of broiler chickens. Journal of Central European Agriculture, 11(4), 393-400. https://DOI:5513/JCEA01/11.4.843
  50. Teymouri, M., & Hassanabadi, A. (2021). Influence of corn conditioning temperature and enzyme supplementation on growth performance, nutrient utilisation and intestine morphology of broilers fed mash corn-soy diets. Italian Journal of Animal Science, 20(1):1015-1028. https://doi.org/10.1080/1828051X.2021.1943015
  51. Tiemouri, H., Zarghi, H., & Golian, A. (2019). Effect of enzyme supplementation on AMEn, dry matter and crude protein digestibility of hull-less barley in broiler chickens. Iranian Journal of Animal Science Research, 13(3),369-388. (In Persian).
  52. Toghyani, M., Rodgers, N., Barekatain, M., Iji, P., & Swick, R. (2014). Apparent metabolizable energy value of expeller-extracted canola meal subjected to different processing conditions for growing broiler chickens. Poultry Science, 93(9),2227-2236. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2013-03790
  53. Toghyani, M., Swick, R., & Barekatain, R. (2017). Effect of seed source and pelleting temperature during steam pelleting on apparent metabolizable energy value of full-fat canola seed for broiler chickens. Poultry Science, 96(5),1325-1333. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pew401
  54. Vahjen, W., Mader, A., Knorr, F., Ruhnke, I., Röhe, I., Hafeez, A., Villodre, C., Männer, K., & Zentek, J. (2014). The effects of different thermal treatments and organic acid levels in feed on microbial composition and activity in gastrointestinal tract of broilers. Poultry Science, 93(6),1440-1452. https://DOI: 3382/ps.2013-03763
  55. Veluri, S., and Olukosi, O. (2020). Metabolizable energy of soybean meal and canola meal as influenced by the reference diet used and assay method. Animals, 10(11),2132. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10112132
  56. Zarghi, H., Golian, A., Kermanshahi, H., & Aghel, H. (2011). Effect of enzyme supplementation on metabolisable energy of corn, wheat and triticale grains in broiler chickens using total excreta collection or marker methods. Iranian Journal of Animal Science Research, 3(2),105-112. (In Persian).