The effect of butyrate monoglyceride and probiotic additives on growth performance, some blood parameters and digestibility of nutrients in Holstein suckling calves

Document Type : Ruminant Nutrition


1 Department of Animal Science , Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabili, Iran.

2 Animal Science Department of University of Mohaghegh Ardebili, Ardebil, Iran.


Introduction[1] Probiotic supplements improve livestock growth, increase in intake of feed, improve digestion and absorption of nutrients and health conditions. Feeding butyrate in combination with milk and starter prior to weaning of calves may enhance rumen development, body weight, health status and growth performance. The butyrate supplement used in this study is monoglyceride butyrate and during digestion of ruminal fat, first glycerol is separated from the glyceride composition, and then the isolated bacteria are exposed to digestion and absorption of butyric acid. Butyric acid is one of the absorbed volatile fatty acids and metabolism of the rumen wall, the final product of which is metabolized by the rumen stem cell epithelial cells, a beta-hydroxy butyrate compound. The aim of this study was to evaluate effect of butyrate monoglyceride and probiotic additives on growth performance, some blood parameters and digestibility of nutrients in Holstein suckling calves.
Materials and Methods For this experiment, 24 newborn Holstein calves with an average age of 6 days, and about 36±2 kg weight, with 4 treatments and 6 replications were performed in a completely randomized factorial design (2×2). The treatments included: 1) base rations (starter and whole milk) 2) base ration + daily 2 grams of probiotic (Protexin) mixed with milk 3) base rations + daily ration 5 grams of  butyrate monoglyceride mixed with starter 4) base ration + 2 grams of periobiotic mixed in milk + 5 grams of monoglyceride butyrate mixed with starter. During the experiment, functional traits such as daily gain, daily intake and feed conversion were determined. Calves were weighed individually on days 30 and 65. In order to measure apparent digestibility at the end of the course, the feces were collected for 5 consecutive days. The collected samples were dried in an oven at 65 ° C for 48 hours. During the 30th and 65th days of the experiment, blood samples were taken from the vein before the morning meal. Blood samples were transferred to the laboratory for centrifugation (at 3500 rpm) for 15 minutes. The serum samples were stored at -20 ° C until measured. Blood glucose, urea, cholesterol, triglyceride, albumin, total protein and beta-hydroxy butyric acid were measured using laboratory kits (Pars Test, Iran) and using the CS-400 auto-analyzer. Data were analyzed using MIXED and SAS software.
Results and Discussion The results showed that final weight was not affected by probiotic and probiotic and butyrate monoglyceride interacting (P>0.05). But it was affected by the butyrate monoglyceride (P<0.05). Daily feed intake was not affected by experimental treatments (P>0.05). Daily weight gain was not affected by probiotic and probiotic and butyrate monoglyceride interactions (P>0.05). But it was affected by the butyrate monoglyceride (P<0.05). Feed conversion ratio was not affected by treatments during the whole period (P>0.05). But in the first month it was affected by the probiotic (P<0.05). The results of this study showed that the concentration of beta-hydroxy butyric blood was not affected by the probiotic factor (P<0.05), while the butyrate supplementation factor was effective in increasing the concentration of beta-hydroxy-butyric (P<0.05). Also, there was a tendency for the probabiotic and monoglyceride butyrate interactions to be meaningful (P<0.055). The level of beta-hydroxybutyric acid indicates rumen development and the beginning of the metabolism of the final products of fermentation by rumen epithelium The results showed that digestion of calves was not affected by experimental diets (P>0.05). The interaction factor of probiotic and butyrate monoglyceride had a significant effect on blood glucose concentration (P<0.05). Also, beta-hydroxy butyric acid is affected by butyrate supplementation (P<0.05). However, experimental treatments of butyrate and probiotic (Protexin) had no effect on cholesterol, triglyceride, albumin, and total protein (P>0.05).
Conclusion The probiotic (Protexin) and the interaction factor of probiotic and butyrate monoglyceride did not affect daily intake, daily gain, final body weight of calves and feed conversion ratio, while the addition of butyrate monoglyceride in the diet affected the weight gain and calving weight of the calves daily. Nutrient utilization and digestibility of dairy calves was not affected by experimental diets. Beta-hydroxy-butyric acid was also affected by butyrate supplementation. However, experimental treatments of butyrate and probiotic (Protexin) had no effect on cholesterol, triglyceride, albumin, and total protein. In general, supplementation of the diet of infected calves with butyrate monoglycerides can have beneficial effects on the performance and development of rumen in infant calves. In general it can be concluded that butyrate monoglyceride as supplementation of the diet (milk replacer or starter diet) may enhance rumen development in Holstein suckling calves.



1- Abe, F., N. Ishibashi, and S. Shimamura. 1995. Effect of administration of bifidobacteria and lactic acid bacteria to newborn calves and piglets. Journal of Dairy Science, 78(12): 2838-2846.
2- Al-Saiady, M. Y. 2010. Effect of probiotic bacteria on immunoglobulin G concentration and other blood components of newborn calves. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 9(3): 604-609.
3- AOAC. 2000. Official methods of analysis of AOAC. International 17th edition; Gaithersburg. M, D., USA Association of Analytical Communities
4- Beiranvand, H., G. R. Ghorbani., M. Khorvash., A. Nabipour., M. Dehghan-Banadaky., A. Homayouni, and S. Kargar. 2014. Interactions of alfalfa hay and sodium propionate on dairy calf performance and rumen development. Journal of Dairy Science, 97(4):2270–2280.
5- Benchaar, C., J. L. Duynisveld, and E. Charmley. 2006. Effects of monensin and increasing dose levels of a mixture of essential oil compounds on intake, digestion and growth performance of beef cattle. Canadian Journal of Animal Science, 86(1): 91-96.
6- Bergman, E. N. 1990. Energy contributions of volatile fatty acids from the gastrointestinal tract in various species. Physiological Reviews, 70(2): 567–590.
7- Blum, S., S. Alvarez., D. Haller., P. Perez, and E. J. Schiffrin .1999. Intestinal microflora and the interaction with immunocompetent cells. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek, 67(1):199–205.
8- Cavini, S., S. Iraira., A. Siurana., A. Foskolos., A. Ferret, and S. Calsamiglia. 2015. Effect of sodium butyrate administered in the concentrate on rumen development and productive performance of lambs in intensive production system during the suckling and the fattening periods. Small Ruminant Research, 123(1): 212–217.
9- Chaudhary, L., A. Sahoo., N. Agrawal., D. Kamra, and N. Pathak. 2008. Effect of direct fed microbial on nutrient utilization, rumen fermentation, immune and growth response in crossbred cattle calves. Indian Journal of Animal Science, 78(1): 515-521.
10- Chaves, A. V., K. K. Duganc., L. L. Stanford., J. M. Gibson., T. A. Bystrom., F. McAllister., H. Van, and C. Benchaar. 2011. A dose-response of cinnamaldehyde supplementation on intake, ruminal fermentation, blood metabolites, growth performance, and carcass characteristics of growing lambs. Livestock Science, 141(2-3): 220-213.
11- Cole, C., F. Fullei, and M. Newport. 1987. The effect of diluted yogurt on the gut microbiology and growth of piglets. Food Microbiology, 4(1): 83-85.
12- Cummings, J. H., J. L. Rombeau, and T. Sakata. 1995. Physiological and Clinical Aspects of Short Chain Fatty Acid Metabolism. Cambridge University, pp. 289-305, Press: Cambridge
13- Donovan, D., S. Franklin., S. Chase, and A. Hippen. 2002. Growth and health of Holstein calves fed replacer supplemented with antibiotics or enter guard. Journal of Dairy Science, 85: 947-950
14- Ferreira, L. S, and C. M. M. Bittar. 2010. Performance and plasma metabolites of dairy calves fed starter containing sodium butyrate, calcium propionate or sodium monensin. Animal, 5(2): 239–245.
15- Francisco, C., C. Chamberlain., D. Waldner., R. Wetteman, and L. Spicer. 2002. Propionibacteria fed to dairy cows: Effect on energy balance, plasma metabolites and hormones and reproduction. Journal of Dairy Science, 85(7): 1738-1751.
16- Franco, L. D., M. Fondevila., M. B. Lobera, and C. Castrillo. 2005. Effect of combinations of organic acids in weaned pig diets on microbial species of digestive tract contents and their response on digestibility. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 89(3-6): 88–93.
17- Fuller, R. 1977. The importance of lactobacilli in maintaining normal microbial balance in the crop. British Poultry Science, 18(1): 85-94.
18- Galvao, K. N., E. A. Santos., J. Coscioni., M. Villasenor., W. M. Sischo, and A. C. Berge. 2005. Effect of feeding live yeast products to calves with failure of passive transfer on performance and patterns of antibiotic resistance in fecal Echerchia coli. Reproduction Nutrition Development, 79(4): 228-240.
19- Goodlad, R. A. 1981. Some effects of diet on the mitotic index and the cell cycle of the ruminal epithelium of sheep. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Physiology, 66(4): 487-499.
20- Gorka, P., Z. M. Kowalski., P. Pietrzak., A. Kotunia., W. Jagusiak., J. J. Holst., P. Guilloteau, and R. Zabielski. 2011. Effect of method of delivery of sodium butyrate on rumen development in newborn calves. Journal of Dairy Science, 94(11): 5578-5588.
21- Guilloteau, P., G. Savary., Y. Jaguelin-Peyrault., V. Rome., L. LeNormand, and R. Zabielski. 2010. Dietary sodium butyrate supplementation increases digestibility and pancreatic secretion in young milk-fed calves. Journal of Dairy Science, 93(12): 5842–5850.
22- Guilloteau, P., R. Zabielski., J. C. David., J. W. Blum., J. A. Morisset., M. Biernat., J. Woliński., D. Laubitz, and Y. Hamon. 2009. Sodium-butyrate as a growth promoter in milk replacer formula for young calves. Journal of Dairy Science, 92(3): 1038 1049.26.
23- Guilloteau, P., V. Rome., L. Le Normand., G. Savary, and R. Zabielski. 2004. Is Na-butyrate a growth factor in the preruminant calf? Preliminary results. Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences, 13(Suppl.1): 393–396.
24- Higginbotham, G. E, and D. L. Bath. 1993. Evaluation of Lactobacillus fermentation cultures in calf feeding systems. Journal of Dairy Science, 76(2):615-620.
25- Hossain, S. A., S. Parnerkar., N. Haque., R. Gupta., D. Kumar, and A. Tyagi. 2012. Influence of dietary supplementation of live yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on nutrient utilization ruminal and biochemical profiles of Kankrej calves. International Journal of Applied Animal Research, 1(1):30-38
26- Hosseinabadi, M., M. Dehghan Bandaky, and A. Zali. 2013. The effect of feeding of bacterial probiotic in milk or starter on growth performance, health, blood and rumen parameters of suckling calves. Research Animal Production, 4(1): 8-14.
27- Jatkauskas, J, and V. Vrotniakiene. 2010. Effects of probiotic dietary supplementation on diarrhea patterns, faecal microbiota and performance of early weaned calves. Veterinarni Medicina, 55(10): 494-503.
28- Kato, S. I., K. Sato, H. Chida, S. G. Roh, S. Ohwada, S. Sato, P. Guilloteau, and K. Katoh. 2011. Effects of Na-butyrate supplementation in milk formula on plasma concentrations of GH and insulin, and on rumen papilla development in calves. Journal of Endocrinology, 211(3): 241–248.
29- Le Gall, M., M. Gallois., B. Seve., I. Louveau., J. J. Holst., I. P. Oswald., J. P. Lalle`s, and P. Guilloteau. 2009. Comparative effect of orally administered sodium butyrate before or after weaning on growth and several indices of gastrointestinal biology of piglets. British Journal Nutrition, 102(9): 1285–1296.
30- Lee-Rangel, H. A., G. D. Mendoza, and S. S. Gonzalez. 2012. Effect of calcium propionate and sorghum level on lamb performance. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 177(3-4):237–241.
31- Lehloenya, K., C. Krehbiel., K. Mertz., T. Rehberger, and L. Spicer. 2008. Effect of propionibacteria and yeast culture fed to steer on nutrient intake and site and extent of digestion. Journal of Dairy Science, 91(2): 653-662.
32- Lesmeister, K. E., A. J. Heinrichs, and M. T. Gabier. 2004. Effects of supplemental yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) culture and probiotic on rumen development, growth characteristics, and blood parameters in neonatal dairy calves. Journal of Dairy Science, 87(6):1832-1839.
33- Magalhaes, V. J. A., F. Susca., F. S. Lima., A. F. Branco., I. Yoon, and J. E. P Santos. 2008. Effect of feeding probiotic on performance, health, and immunocompetence of dairy calves. Journal of Dairy Science, 91(4): 1497–1509.
34- Manzanilla, E. G., M. Nofrarias., M. Anguita., M. Castillo., J. F. Perez., S. M. Martin-Orue., C. Kamel, and J. Gasa. 2006. Effects of butyrate, avilamycin, and a plant extract combination on the intestinal equilibrium of early-weaned pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 84(10): 2743–2745
35- Mazzoni, M., M. Le Gall., S. De Filippi., L. Minieri., P. Trevisi., J. Wolinski., G. Lalatta- Costerbosa., J. P. Lalles., P. Guilloteau, and P. Bosi. 2008. Supplemental sodium butyrate stimulates different gastric cells in weaned pigs. The Journal of Nutrition, 138(8): 1426–1431.
36- Mehrdad, N., Y. Chashnai Del., A. Teimouri Yansari, and M. Khorvash. 2016. Effect of two types of probiotics on the performance, blood and rumen parameters of Holstein male calves, Journal of Research in Ruminants, 5(1): 24-31. (In Persian).
37- Mohamadi Roodposhti, P, and N. Dabiri. 2012. Effects of probiotic and prebiotic on average daily gain, ecal shedding of Escherichia Coli and immune system status in newborn female calves. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 25(9): 1255-1261.
38- Mohan, B., R. Kadirvel., M. Bhaskaran, and A. Natarajan. 1995. Effect of Organic Acid supplementation on serum/yolk cholesterol and on egg shell thickness in layers. British Poultry Science, 36(5): 799-803.
39- Moslemipour, F., F. Moslemipour, and Y. M. Leo. 2012. The effect of using probiotics and synbiotics in colostrum and milk on the incontinence rate of immunoglobulins and the indicator of bovine function and health. Journal of Research in Ruminants, 1(4): 25-29. (In Persian).
40- Mroz, Z. 2005. Organic acids as potential alternative to antibiotic growth promoters for pigs. Advances in Pork Production, 16(1): 169–182.
41- Nazari, M., K. Karkoodi, and A. Alizadeh. 2012. Performance and physiological responses of milk-fed calves to coated calcium butyrate supplementation. South African Journal of Animal Science, 42(3): 296–303.
42- Nemati, A., S. Tabatabaie., A. Davar Frouzandekey Shahraki, and Sh. EghbalSaeed. 2010. Comparison effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast and Protexin probiotic in starter on blood parameter, Immunity blood, behavior and fecal score in the suckling calves. The 4th congress on Animal Science Karaj Iran, 2141-2144.
43- Norouzian, M. A., R. Valizadeh, and P. Vahmani. 2011. Rumen development and growth of Balouchi lambs offered alfalfa hay pre- and post-weaning. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 43(6): 1169-1174.
44- NRC. 2000. Nutrient Requirement of Beef Cattle. 7th Edition. National Academy Press. Washington DC.
45- Östman, E. M., M. Nilsson., H. G. M. Liljeberg Elmstahl., G. Molin, and I. M. E. Björck. 2002. On the effect of lactic acid on blood glucose and insulin responses to cereal products: Mechanistic studies in healthy subjects and in vitro. Journal of Cereal Science, 36(3): 339-346.
46- Partanen, K. H, and Z. Mroz. 1999. Organic acids for performance enhancement in pig diets. Nutrition Research Reviews, 12(1): 117–145.
47- Pouillart, P. R. 1998. Role of butyric acid and its derivatives in the treatment of colorectal cancer and hemoglobinopathies. Life Science, 63(20):1739–1760.
48- Quigley, J. D. 1996. Influence of weaning method on growth, intake, and selected blood metabolites in Jersey calves. Journal of Dairy Science, 79(12):2255–2260.
49- Riddell, J. B., A. Gallegos., D. Harmon, and K. Mc Leod. 2010. Addition of a Bacillus based probiotic to the diet of pre ruminant calves: influence on growth, health, and blood parameters. International Journal of Applied Research in Veterinary Medicine, 8(1): 78-85.
50- Saarela, M., G. Mogensen., R. Fonden., J. Mattoadt, and R. Sandholm. 2000. Probiotic bacteria: safety, functional and technological properties. Journal of Biotechnology, 84(3): 197-215.
51- Saavedra, J. M. 2001. Clinical application of probiotic agents. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 73(6): 1147- 11510.
52- SAS / STAT User's Guide. Version 9.1 Edition. 2003. SAS Inst. Cary, NC.
53- Seifzadeh, S., F. Mirzaei Aghjehgheshlagh., H. Abdibenemar., J. Seifdavati, and B. Navidshad .2017. The effects of a medical plant mix and probiotic on performance and health status of suckling Holstein calves. Italian Journal of Animal Science, 16(1):44-51.
54- Sengwan, N. S., A. Farooqi., A. Shabih, and R. Sangwan. 2001. Regulation of essentiol oil production in plants. Plant Growth Regular, 34(1): 3-21.
55- Slusarczyk, K., J. A. Strzetelski, and I. Furgal-Dierzuk. 2010. The effect of sodium butyrate on calf growth and serum level of b–hydroxybutyric acid. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 19(3): 348–357.
56- Soltani, M., M. Kazemi bin Chenari., A. H. Khult Abadi Farahani, and O. Afsarian. 2016. The effect of sodium butyrate on the initial diets of all concentrates or containing fodder in infant lambs. Nutrition Faculty of Ruminants, Faculty of Agriculture, Animal Science Department, Arak University. (The Thesis).
57- Timmerman, H. M., L. Mudler., H. Evrets, and D. C. Vanespan. 2005. Health and growth of veal calves fed milk replacer with or without Probiotics. Journal of Dairy Science, 88(6):2154-65.
58- Van Keulen, J, and B. A. Young. 1977. Evaluation of acid-insoluble ash as a natural marker in ruminant digestibility studies. Journal of Animal Science, 44(1): 282–287.
59- Van Soest, P. J., J. B. Robertson, and B. A. Lewis. 1991. Methods of dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and non-starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science, 74(10): 3583- 3597.