The Effect of Additive Supplementation on Blood Metabolites, Microbial Population, Ruminants and Inactive Transmission of Immunoglobulins in Holstein Calf

Document Type : Physiology


1 Department of Agriculture, University of Birjand

2 Department of Agriculture, Payame Noor University


Introduction In ruminant animals, the microbial population of the digestive tract can be controlled by several factors such as growth promoters, probiotics, periobacters, enzymes, essential oils, oligosaccharides and plant additives. Before weaning, dairy calves are susceptible to many pathogens and nutritional problems. For several years antibiotics have been used to overcome these problems also to obtain economic benefits in terms of improved calves performance and reduced medication costs. However, the use of antibiotics in animal husbandry is in question because of antibiotic resistance of microorganisms. Research shows an association between the use of sub-therapeutic dose of antibiotics and antibiotic-resistance organisms. Probiotics are live microbial feed supplements which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its microbial balance. Most of probiotic studies that were reported in the literatures used single or two strains probitics rather that multi strains bacteria, Prebiotics are non-digestible carbohydrates which are not metabolized in the small intestine and fermented in large intestine. reported that dietary chitosan oligosaccharides supplementation was effective in increasing the ileal digestibilities of nutrients and feed efficiency in broilers. Also reported that broilers fed diet supplemented with oligochitosan prebiotic had higher serum IgG, IgM and IgA concentration compared with broiler fed control diet. Dietary supplementation with Chinese herbal ultra-fine 3 powder as a prebiotic enhances cellular and humoral immunity in early weaned piglets. In this study, the effect of adding supplements to milk on functional parameters, blood metabolites, microbial population and inactivation of immunoglobulins to calves were investigated.
Materials and methods Sixteen newly-born Holstein male calves were used in four completely randomized treatments for 60 days.Treatments included: 1- control group (no additive milk) 2- probiotic group (milk + 2 gr probiotic) 3- prebiotic group (milk + 4 gr perbiotic) 4- synbiotic group (milk + 2 gr probiotic and 4 gr perbiotic). Calves were weighed at 3, 30 and 63 days of age after feeding the milk at the morning meal, and the feed intake was measured and recorded daily from day 10 to the end of the period for each calf. On the 14, 30 and 63 days samples of all calves were taken from the feces for microbial culture. Blood samples were taken at nine o'clock in the morning (two hours after the morning meal) on weekdays. To measure the concentration of metabolites, plasma samples were melting at room temperature to determine the serum levels of serum cholesterol, glucose, albumin, triglyceride and total protein plasma from a biosorbent kit and an autoanalyzer (model A15, France) with two replications measured. IgG concentrations were measured by immunoturbidimetry method using the COBAS INTEGRA kit at a wavelength of 800-400 nm On the fourth day of the course, the total activity was measured for 24 hours by direct observation (28 and 51). The duration of rumination and eating was considered as the duration of maturation, and the activity of rumination and eating every five minutes was recorded for 24 hours. The duration of rumination and eating from the product of the number of each observation was obtained at intervals of five minutes.
Results and discussion In calves fed with a diet containing probiotic supplementThe lowest feed intake and the best feed conversion ratio were observed in all periods compared to other treatments.Glucose and Triglyceride, total cholesterol concentration, total plasma protein and plasma aliquin concentrations were not affected by probiotic and peri-biotic supplements in diets and no significant differences were found between diets. Probiotic supplementation significantly reduced the concentration of triglycerides in the blood plasma of calves fed with supplement supplements (P <0.05). The highest concentration of triglyceride was in the control group, with a significant difference (P <0.05) with other groups. The lowest concentration of beta-hydroxybutyrate was in the control group, with a significant difference (P <0.05) with other groups.In the calf Fed with probioticThe total amount of bacteria increased slightly after feeding, but there was no significant difference between different age groups in the complementary recipient groups. The highest IgG levels were in the group that consumed probiotics and there was a significant difference between the control group and the synbiotic group (P <0.05), but it was only numerically higher than the prebiotic group and this trend All ages 3, 7 and 30 continued. 
Conclusion In general, the results showed that supplementation with probiotic additive could improve the livestock's economic indices.


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