Effect of Different of Levels Energy and Protein on Performance, Microbial Protein, Some of Metabolites and Ruminal Parameters in Late Pregnancy of Sistani Goat

Document Type : Ruminant Nutrition


1 Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of Sari

2 Department of Animal Sciences, Sari University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources


Introduction[1]Nutrient requirements of goats have not been studied as extensively as those of beef and dairy cattle and sheep. Furthermore, Sistani goats have received less research attention than meat or dairy goats. Goats play an important role in Iran, largely as a source of red meat and milk. Iran has 25 million goats and kids. Results of research on ruminants showed that nutrients can affect prenatal growth if the lack of nutrition during gestation (in utero nutrition) will affect the postnatal growth performance. Dietary nutrient, especially energy and protein, are major factors affecting meat production in goats. During the late gestation, the last two months of pregnancy, eighty percent of the fetal growth occurs, leading to a significant increase in nutrient requirements of the ewe. Underfeeding energy or protein during pregnancy can lead to pregnancy toxemia, sub ketosis, or compromised fetal development, especially at the end of pregnancy when fetal growth rate is highest. The idea of using levels energy and protein in Sistani goat is new Therefore, this experiment conducted to test the effect energy and protein on on performance, digestibility, microbial protein, some of metabolites and ruminal parameters in late pregnancy of goat.  
Materials and Methods The experiment was conducted in the Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University (SANRU) of Iran. Humane animal care and handling procedures were followed according to the University’s animal care committee. On 100 days after successful matting, 28 synchronized singleton pregnant Sistani goats (with 3-year-old; body weight = 25±1.6 kg, and body condition score =2.6±0.5) were randomly allocated to four treatments and fed with experimental rations including 1) low protein and low energy diets (LPLE), 2) high protein and low energy (HPLE), 3) low protein and high energy (LPHE), and 4) high protein and high energy (HPHE). Feeds and rations samples were dried at 55°C, ground through a Wiley mill (1-mm screen), and composted by animal. Samples were analyzed for DM, OM, Kjeldahl N, ether extract (AOAC, 2002), ADF, NDF (Van Soest et al., 1991; using heat resistance alpha amylase without sodium sulphate), and ash at 605°C. The NFC was calculated by 100- (CP (%) + NDF (%) + Ash (%) + EE (%). The goats were weighted at the start of experiment, before and1 d after parturition, and Kids weight after birth. Nutrient digestibility, blood parameter, microbial protein synthesis and chewing activity. By measuring urine purine bases microbial protein synthesis was estimated. Rumination and chewing activity animal were measured visually with five-minute intervals over 24 h for all animals. Rumen fluid was collected at o h before feeding and at 3h post feeding. The sample were sealed and placed in freezer before transport to the laboratory for the analysis the NH3 and VFA content.
Results and Discussion Our results showed that the intake of nutrients was increased in HPHE Treatment. Treatment HPLE had highest apparent digestibility than other experimental treatments. Goats on the higher CP diet lost more BW at parturition than other treatments. The lowest pH occurred at 3h post feeding. The ph of rumen fluid after the food ration is provided tends to decrease gradually because of fermentation in the rumen, particularly that of carbohydrates, which are degraded into VFA products. The VFA production increased at 3 h post feeding. There were no differences for microbial protein synthesis but had increase in treatment HPHE for microbial protein synthesis. Concentration of plasma cholesterol was significantly difference at 28d before generation. Glucose concentrations and urea were increased in HPLE treatments and Concentration of plasma triglycerid was lower in goats fed LPLE diet at 14d before generation. Glucose plasma concentration was higher in HPHE than other groups at 2h after generation. The birth live weight of kids was similar between the four groups but LPLE, LPHE and HPHE had numerically lower birth weight. The HPLE group had greatest and LPLE group had lowest body condition score.
Conclusion Overall, these results show that maternal protein feeding during late gestation has been positively associated with kid birth weight and performance. In this experiment, 10 % of CP concentration greater than NRC (2007) recommendation, increased the body weights kids and improved performance of goat. Although, it seems that further experiments are needed.


1- Al-Dewachi, O.S. 1999. Some biochemical constituents in the blood serum of pregnant Awassi ewes. Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 12: 275–279.
2- Atti, N., H. Rouissi, and M. Mahouachi. 2004. The effect of dietary crude protein level on growth, carcass and meat composition of male goat kids in Tunisia. Small Ruminant Research, 54: 89-97.
3- Bauchart, D. 1993. Lipid absorption and transport in ruminants. Journal of Dairy Science, 76:3864–3881.
4- Broderick, G. A. 2003. Effects of varying dietary protein and energy levels on the production of lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 86:1370–1381.
5- Bell, A. W., W. S. Burhans, and T. R. Overton. 2000. Protein nutrition in late pregnancy, maternal protein reserves and lactation performance in dairy cows. Journal of Animal Science, 59:119-126.
6- Charismiadou, M. A., J. A. Bizelis, and E. Rogdakis. 2000. Metabolic changes during the perinatal period in dairy sheep in relation to level of nutrition and breed. I. Late pregnancy. Journal of Animal Physiology, 84:61–72.
7- Cheema, A. U., M. L. Galyean, J. S. Caton, and A. S. Freeman. 1991. Influence of protein levels and naloxone on intake, nitrogen metabolism and digestion kinetics in lambs fed oat hay or barley straw. Small Ruminant Research, 5:35-46.
8- Chen, X. B, and M. J. Gomes. 1992. Estimation of Microbial Protein Supply to Sheep and Cattle Based on Urinary Excretion of Purine Derivatives – An. International Feed Resources Unit Rowett Research Institute, Bucksburn Aberdeen AB2 9SB, UK
9- Dore, V., J. Dubuc, A. M. Belanger, and S. Buczinski. 2015. Definition of prepartum hyperketonemia in dairy goats. Journal of Dairy Science, 98:4535–4543. doi:10.3168/jds.2014-9172.
10- FAO. 2010. Food and Agriculture organization statistical Database http:// apps. Fao. org/default. Food and Agriculture organization of united nation.
11- Fthenakis, G. C., G. Arsenos, C. Brozos. I. A. Fragkou, N. D. Giadinis, I. Giannenas, V.S. Marvrogianni, E. Papadopoulos, and I.Valasi. 2012. Management of ewes during pregnancy. Animal Reproduction Science, 130: 198– 212.
12- Jasim, M. D., K. Zahirul Haque, K. M. Jasimuddin, and K. M. Mehedi Hasan. 2015. Dynamics of microbial protein synthesis in the rumen - A Review. Uddin et al. Annals of Veterinary and Animal Science, ISSN: 2313-5514.
13- Jia, Z. H., T. Sahlu, J. M. Femandez, S. P. Hart, T. H. The. 1995. Effects of dietary protein level on performance of Angora and cashmereproducing Spanish goats. Journal of Small Ruminant Research, 16:113-119.
14- Harper, K. J, and D. M. McNeill. 2015. The Role iNDF in the Regulation of Feed Intake and the Importance of Its Assessment in Subtropical Ruminant Systems (the Role of iNDF in the Regulation of Forage Intake). Journal of Agriculture, 5: 778-790.
15- Huston, J. E., G. S. Engdahl, and K. W. Bales. 1988. Intake and digestibility in sheep and goats fed three forages with different levels of supplemental protein. Journal of Small Ruminant Research, 1:81-92.
16- Ingvartsen, K. L. 2006. Feeding- and management-related diseases in the transition cow: physiological adaptations around calving and strategies to reduce feeding-related diseases. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 126:175–213.
17- Kaswari, T., P. Lebzien, G. Flachowsky, and U. T. Meulen. 2007. Studies on the relationship between the synchronization index and the microbial protein synthesis in the rumen of dairy cows, Animal Feed Science and Technology. No. of Pages 22.
18- Krizsan, S. J., S. Ahvenjärvi and P. Huhtanen. 2010. A meta-analysis of passage rate estimated by rumen evacuation with cattle and evaluation of passage rate prediction models. Journal of Dairy Science, 93: 5890-5901.
19- Khorasani, G. R., G. De Boer, B. Robinson, J. J. Kennelly. 1994. Influence of dietary protein and starch on production and metabolic responses of dairy cows. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(94)77016-8.
20- Lu, C. D, and M. T. Potchoiba. 1990. Feed intake and weight gain of growing goats fed diets of various energy and protein levels. Journal of Animal Science, 68: 1751-1759.
21- Mawati, S., A. Purnomo Adi, and S. Sunarso. 2016. Effect of Feed with Different Energy-protein Ratios on Parameters of Sheep Ruminal Fermentation. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 15(12): 1055-1060.
22- McDonald, P., R. A. Edwards, J. F. D. Greenhalgh, C. A. Morgan, L. A. Sinclair. and R. G. Wilkinson. 2011. Animal Nutrition. 7th ed. Essex: Pearson Education Limited.
23- Mertens, D. R. 1997. Creating a system of meeting the fiber requirements of dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 80: 1463-1481.
24- Minson, D. J. 1990. Forage in Ruminant Nutrition. Academic Press: San Diego, CA, USA, p. 483.
25- Mohtashami. B., H. R. Mirzaei, and H. Amanlou. 2015. Effect of Different Amounts of Protein and Varying Proportions of Corn Silage and Alfalfa hay on Performance and Nitrogen Excretion of Dairy Holstein Cows. Journal of Ruminant Research, 3(3): 117-131.
26- Moore, J. E, and D. J. Undersander.2012. Relative Forage Quality: An Alternative to Relative Feed Value and Quality Index. Proceedings 13th Annual Florida Ruminant Nutrition Symposium, pp ;16-32
27- Murniati, T., M. Idrus, D. P. Rahardja, A, Latief Toleng, and A. Ako. 2013. Effect of maternal nutrition at different stages of pregnancy in goats (etawa cross and kacang) on performance of does and goat kids. International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR).
28- Nazifi, S., M. Saeb, and S. M. Ghavami. 2002. Serum lipid profile in iranian fattailed sheep in late pregnancy, at parturition and during the postparturition period. Journal of veterinary medicine, 49:9–12.
29- NRC. (Ed.). 2007. Nutrient requirements of small ruminants: sheep, goats, cervids, and New World camelids. The National Academies Press Washington, DC.
30- Pralomkarn, W., S. Saithanoo, S. Kochapakdee, and B. W. Norton. 1995. Effect of genotype and plane of nutrition on carcass characteristics of thai native and anglonubian x thai native male goats. Small Ruminant Research, 16: 21-25.
31- Promkot, C. and M. Wanapat. 2005. Effect of level of crude protein and use of cottonseed meal in diets containing cassava chips and rice straw for lactating dairy cows. Asian-Aust. Journal of Animal Science, 18: 502-511.
32- Raffrenato, E., L. J. Erasmus. 2013. Variability of indigestible NDF in C3 and C4 forages and implications on the resulting feed energy values and potential microbial protein synthesis in dairy cattle. Journal of Animal Science, 43:93-97.
33- Robinson, J. J., T. G. McEvoy, and Sinclair, K. D. 1999. Nutritional effects on foetal growth. Animal Science, 68: 315-331.
34- Sadjadian, R., A. Hesam Seifi, M. Mohri, A. A. Naserian, and N. Farzaneh. 2013. Variations of energy biochemical metabolites in periparturient dairy Saanen goats. Comparative Clinical Pathology, 22:449–456.
35- Sahlu, T., S. P. Hart, T. Le-trong, Z. Jia, L. Dawson, T. Gipson, and T. H. Teh. 1995. Influence of Prepartum Protein and Energy Concentrations for Dairy Goats During Pregnancy and Early Lactation. Journal of Dairy Science, 78:378-387
36- Shahjalal, M., M. A. Bishwas, A. M. M. Tareque and H. Dohi. 2000. Growth and carcass characteristics of goats given diets varying protein concentration and feeding level. Asian-Aust. Journal of Animal Science, 13: 613-618.
37- Sharifi, M., M. Bashtani, A. A. Naserian, and H. Khorasani. 2013. Effect of dietary crude protein level on the performance and apparent digestibility of Iranian Saanen kids. African Journal of Biotechnology, 12(26): 4202-4205.
38- Souza, N.K.P., E. Detmann, S.C. Valadares Filho, V.A.C. Costa, D.S. Pina, D.I. Gomes, A.C. Queiroz, and H.C. Mantovani. 2013. Accuracy of the estimates of ammonia concentration in rumen fluid using different analytical methods. J. Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinaria. e Zootecnia. 65: 1752-1758.
39- Tedeschi, L.O., A. Cannas, and D. G. Fox. 2010. A nutrition mathematical model to account for dietary supply and requirements of energy and other nutrients for domesticated small ruminants: the development and evaluation of the Small Ruminant Nutrition System. Small Ruminant Research, v.89, n.2-3, p.174-184, 2010
40- Teimouri Yansari, A., B. Afshar Hamidi, R. Pir Mohamadi, and A. Mohsenpour Azary, 2007. Rumen contents and ruminal digesta particle size distribution in buffalo steers fed three different size of alfalfa. ital. Journal of Animal Science, 6: 429-432.
41- Zali, S. M., A. Teimouri Yansari, and A. Jafari Sayyadi. 2015. Effect of particle size and fragility of corn silage and alfalfa hay on intake, digestibility, performance, and chewing activity of fattening male lambs. Journal of Veterinary Science, 1:47-57.
42- Zebeli, Q., M. Tafaj, I. Weber, H. Steingass, and W. Drochner. 2008. Effects of dietary forage particle size and concentrate level on fermentation profile, in vitro degradation characteristics and concentration of liquid- or solid-associated bacterial mass in the rumen of dairy cows. Journal of Animal Feed Science and Technology, 140: 307-325.
43- Zhao, X. G., M. Wang, Z. L. Tan, S. X. Tang, Z. H. Sun, C. S. Zhou, and X. F. Han. 2009. Effects of Rice Straw Particle Size on Chewing Activity, Feed Intake, Rumen Fermentation and Digestion in Goats. Asian-Aust. Journal of Animal Science, 22: 1256-1266.
44- Varga, G. A. 2003. Soluble carbohydrates for lactating dairy cows. Tri-State Dairy Nutrition Conference, pp: 59-74.
45- Van Soest, P. J. 1994. Nutritional ecology of the ruminant. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY.
46- Voicu, I., GH. Burlacu, R. D. Criste and D. Voic. 1993. Study on the energy and protein requirements in goats. Institute of Biology and Animal Nutrition Balotesti, Romania. Archiv für Tierernaehrung, 44: 47-61.