The Effect of Different Levels Olive cake in Fermentation Parameters, Enzyme Cellulytic and the Rumen Microbial Protein Production Lory Male Lambs

Document Type : Ruminant Nutrition


1 Gorgan University of Agricultural and Natural Resources

2 Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad,Iran

3 Lorestan University, Khorramābād


Introduction Feed represents a major proportion of the overall production cost for livestock industry in worldwide. On the other hand, availability of good quality and unadulterated conventional feed all year round is a major constraint in livestock production. Thus, proper use of inexpensive agricultural by-products is important Goal in livestock production. Appling a new system in olive oil extraction generates large amounts of a new by product, called two-stage olive cake, which includes the remainders of pulp, stones, skin and vegetable waters. Olive cake has high lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose contents. The results of previous experiment showed a high variation on the nutritive value of olive cakes. The chemical composition of by-products is shown olive cake are rich in tannins which can decrease the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis from truly degradable substrate and reducing the amount of ruminal pH and ammonia concentration. The hydrolytic enzymes like carboxymethyl Cellulase, microcrystalline cellulase and degrading activities were estimated in various fractions of rumen contents of Ruminants. Urinary purine derivatives such as allantoin, xanthine and hypoxanthine were estimated to determine the microbial protein supply from rumen. The objective of this trial was to study the effect of replacement Barley grain with olive cake to evaluate the effect of the consuming olive cake on ruminal fermentation characteristics, cellulase enzymes and microbial protein synthesis of lory fattening lambs.
Materials and Methods Fifteen Iranian lory male lambs (27.9 ±3 kg of BW) With the age of 90±10 days were assigned In to a completely ranomized design with 3 treatments and 5 replicates for 84 days 3 dietary treatments and five replications in a completely randomized design. Lambs were grouped based on their age and weight. Weight and experimental trail lasted for 84 days. All lambs were givenfed adlibitum twice daily at 0500 and 1700 h with a Total Mixed Ration (TMR) with 25 to 75% of forage (alfalfa) to concentrate ratio. A TMR composed of 25% forage (Alfalfa) and 75% concentrate. The Dietary treatments were 1) control (without olive cake), 2) 10% olive cake, and 3) 20% olive cake was prepared from animal feed production unite of Jahan Alchohol Co (industrial town of Jamalabad, Gilan, Iran). Approximately all diets were isocaloric and isonitrogenos. Fresh water was also available for lambs at all times during the trail. The NH3-N concentration was determined following the Broderick and Kang (1980) technique. The assay procedure of cellulase enzymes activity was done according to the method of Hristov, et. al (1999). Purine derivatives and was measured by the method of Chen and Gomes (1995).
Results and Discussion The results showed, olive cake caused a significant decrease in the value of ruminal pH the amount of ammonia,concentration of urinary purine derivatives and microbial protein synthesis in the rumen. These results was in accordance with the results have beenreported elsewhere by other workers Overall activity carboxymethyl cellulase enzymes at a level of 10% microcrystalline cellulase enzymes in the diet increase 20% olive cake. It was reported that high fiber diets could increase cellulytic enzymes activity compared to the control diet. Feeding ruminants with olive cake requieres further investigation about its anti nutritional factors. In our study, it would be resulted that feeding of 20% olive cake to lambs diet is possible without any negative effects and it is a good solution for this agricultural by-product usage.
Conclusion This study indicates that lori lambs can be fed with a diet based on olive up to of DMI in tropical areas. According to our findings, using olive cake (up to 20% of DMI) to feed the lambs was decreased pH, ammonia levels and increased the activity of cellulytic enzymes of ruminal.


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