مقایسه اثرات پودر زرشک با سین‌بیوتیک و آنتی‌بیوتیک ویرجینیامایسین بر عملکرد و پاسخ ایمنی جوجه‌های گوشتی

نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی- تغذیه طیور

نویسندگان

دانشگاه ایلام

چکیده

این آزمایش به منظور مقایسه‌ اثرات افزودن زرشک، سین‌بیوتیک و آنتی‌بیوتیک به جیره بر عملکرد و پاسخ ایمنی جوجه‌های گوشتی انجام شد. 200 قطعه جوجه خروس یکروزه (راس 308) در یک طرح بلوک کامل تصادفی، به پنج تیمار و پنج تکرار به ازای هر تیمار تقسیم شدند. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل جیره شاهد (بدون افزودنی)، 15/0 درصد سین‌بیوتیک (بایومین)، 02/0 درصد آنتی بیوتیک (ویرجینیامایسین) و 1 و 2 درصد پودر زرشک بود. نتایج نشان داد جوجه‌های تغذیه شده با جیره‌های حاوی سین بیوتیک کمترین مصرف خوراک را نسبت به دیگر تیمارها داشتند. بالاترین افزایش وزن به ترتیب در تیمارهای تغذیه شده با آنتی بیوتیک و سین بیوتیک مشاهده شد. همه تیمارهای آزمایشی به جز تیمار 1 درصد زرشک بهبود معنی‌دار ضریب تبدیل غذایی، کاهش میزان هتروفیل و نسبت هتروفیل به لنفوسیت‌ها را در مقایسه با تیمار شاهد داشتند. جوجه های تغذیه شده با جیره حاوی سین بیوتیک میزان لنفوسیت بالاتری نسبت به سایر تیمارها داشتند. اثر جیره‌های آزمایشی بر وزن نسبی اندام‌های لنفاوی معنی‌دار نبود. جوجه‌های تغذیه شده با تیمارهای سین‌بیوتیک و سطوح مختلف پودر زرشک به طور معنی‌داری پاسخ ثانویه پادتن بالاتری علیه واکسن‌های نیوکاسل و گامبورو را در مقایسه با گروه شاهد نشان دادند. تأثیر جیره‌های آزمایشی بر ایمنوگلوبولین‌های G و M، همچنین در تست ایمنی سلولی و ازدیاد حساسیت پوستی بر تیمارهای مختلف معنی‌دار نبود. در پایان می‌توان نتیجه گرفت افزودن 2 درصد زرشک به جیره سبب بهبود عملکرد رشد و وضعیت ایمنی جوجه‌های گوشتی می‌شود و می‌تواند جایگزین مناسبی برای آنتی بیوتیک‌های محرک رشد باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Comparative Effect of Berberis Voulgaris Seed, Symbiotic and Virginiamycin (VM) on Performance and Immune Response of Broilers

نویسندگان [English]

  • fateme tavakolinasab
  • Kamran Taherpour
Lorestan
چکیده [English]

Introduction An experiment was conducted to investigate the comparative effect of Berberis voulgaris, symbiotic and virginiamycin (VM) on performance and immune response of broilers. Berberis vulgaris is a bush with yellow to brown coloured bark. The plant has obovate leaves, bearing pendulous yellow flowers in spring succeeded by oblong red coloured fruits. Berberine is the main active alkaloid with a benzyl tetra hydroxy quinoline chemical structure which can be found in all part of Berberis vulgaris especially in its fruit (barberry). berberine, a well known alkaloid, has marked antibacterial effects.
Materials and Methods A total of 200 Ross 308 male broiler chickens, initially weighing an average of 43 g, were randomly assigned to 5 treatments, with 5 replicates/treatment (8 chickens/pen). The experiment was performed as randomized block design and the birds were fed either a corn–soybean meal basal diet (control) or the basal diet supplemented with 0.02% VM; 0.15% symbiotic and 1 and 2% of berberys powder (BV1 and BV2). The diets, in mash form, were offered ad libitum and the birds had free access to water. All birds were maintained under a lighting control system and uniform temperature during the period. The light regime was 23 h light/1 h darkness. The ambient temperature was gradually lowered from 33ºC to 22ºC on day 28 and was then kept constant. Bodyweight gain (BWG) and feed intake (FI) were measured at 10, 28 and 42 days of age. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was calculated as feed intake divided by bodyweight gain. To assay the primary and secondary antibody responses against SRBC, at 28 and 35d of age, 2 birds/replicate were immunized intramuscularly with 0.5 mL 10% SRBC in. Blood samples (1.5 mL/bird) were obtained from the brachial vein at 7d following each injection (days 35 and 42 d). Two birds from each treatment were also selected at 42 days of age to evaluate the immune response by a cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity (CBH) test using phytohemaglutinin PHA-M (Invitrogen). Phytohemaglutinin at 100 μgr was intradermally injected between the third and fourth interdigital folds of each birds left foot. The same volume of saline solution was applied to the left foot as a negative control.
Results and Discussion After 6 wk, the birds fed diets symbiotic had lowest feed consume than other group. Highest body weight was represented in the birds fed diets antibiotic and symbiotic respectively. Feed efficiency improved significantly in all treatment groups except for the BV1 diet. All diet decreased the heterophil level and the blood heterophil / lymphocyte ratio compared with the control group. The symbiotic diet increased lymphocyte level than the other group. Dietary treatments had no significant effect on the relative lymphoed organs weights. The broiler chickens fed the symbiotic and BV2 exhibited a significantly secondary antibody response against Gambaro and Newcastle vaccine as compared with the control group. The additives used in this study failed to have any significant impact on the anti-SRBC titers of total, IgM, and IgG antibodies and there was no interaction between treatment and time for interdigital reaction to phytohemaglutinin. The results of this study are supported by other studies that similarly reported a beneficial effect on body weight, feed efficiency due to dietary symbiotic. Symbiotic is defined as a mixture of probiotics and prebiotics that beneficially affects the host by activating the metabolism of one or a limited number of health promoting bacteria and/or by selectively stimulating their growth improving the host’s welfare. It seems that synergistic effects of prebiotics and probiotics can be useful in stimulating beneficial bacteria and improving the health of the gut. Chand et al, (2005) observed the beneficial influence of barberry seed on productive performance of broilers. The improvement of feed efficiency by spices and their derivatives may be attributed to the stimulation of gastric and pancreatic digestive enzymes and /or modulation of microbial population by phytogenetic products which leads to more absorption of nutrient. The differences in the efficiency between different batches of spice products can partly be explained by variations in bioactive components and yield, composition and activity of them. it can be concluded that the potential effect of active components from spices in broiler chickens may depend on the dosage used.
Conclusion In conclusion, dietary Barberry powder at a level of 2% diet enhanced growth performance, improved resistance to stress and immune status which was comparable to that of VM used as an antibiotic growth promoter.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Barberry powder
  • Broiler
  • Immune response
  • Lymphoid organs
  • Performance
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