1- AOAC International. 1990. Official Methods of Analysis, 15th ed. Association of Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC.
2- Anker, N. K., E. M. Færgesta., S. Sahlstrøm, and A. K. Uhlen. 2006. Interaction between barley cultivars and growth temperature on starch degradation properties measured in vitro. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 130: 3–22.
3- Blum, A. 1989. Breeding methods for drought resistance. Pages 197-215 in Plants under Stress. H. T. J. Flowers and M. B. Jones, ed. Cambridge Univ Press.
4- Bonnett, G. D, and L. D. Incoll. 1992. Effects on the stem of winter barley of manipulating the source and sink during grain- filling 1. Changes in accumulation and loss of mass from internodes. Journal of Experimental Botany, 44: 75-82.
5- Chalupa, W, and C. J. Sniffen. 1996. Protein and amino acid nutrition of lactating dairy cattle—today and tomorrow. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 58: 65-75.
6- Colkesen, M., A. Kamalak., O. Canbolat., Y. Gurbuz, and C. Ozkan. 2005. Effect of cultivar and formaldehyde treatment of barley grain on rumen fermentation characteristics using in vitro gas production. South African Journal of Animal Science, 35: 206-212.
7- Crooker, B., C. Sniffen., W. Hoover, and L. Johnson. 1978. Solvents for soluble nitrogen measurements in feedstuffs. Journal of Dairy Science, 61: 437-447.
8- Damiran, D, and P. Yu. 2010. Chemical profile, rumen degradation kinetics, and energy value of four hull-less barley cultivars: comparison of the zero-amylose waxy, waxy, high-amylose, and normal starch cultivars. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 58: 10553-10559.
9- FAOSTAT. 2012. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. http://www.fao.org/faostat.
10- Fox, D. G., C. J. Sniffen., J. D. O'Connor., J. B. Russell, and P. J. Van Soest. 1992. A net carbohydrate and protein system for evaluating cattle diets: III. Cattle requirements and diet adequacy. Journal of Animal Science, 70: 3578-3596.
11- Ghezeljeh, A. E., D. M. Mesgaran., N. H. Moghaddam, and A. Vakili. 2011. Bulk density, chemical composition and in vitro gas production parameters of Iranian barley grain cultivars grown at different selected climates. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 6: 1226-1232.
12- Ghorbani, G, and A. Hadj-Hussaini. 2002. In situ degradability of Iranian barley grain cultivars. Small Ruminant Research, 44: 207-212.
13- Greenberg, N. A, and W. F. Shipe. 1979. Comparison of the abilites of trichloroacetic, picric, sulfosalicylic, and tungestic acids to precipitate protein hydrolysates and proteins. Journal of Food Science, 44: 7735-737.
14- Krishnamoorthy, U., T. Muscato, C. Sniffen, and P. Van Soest. 1982. Nitrogen fractions in selected feedstuffs. Journal of Dairy Science, 65: 217-225.
15- Lanzas, C., C. J. Sniffen, S. Seo, L. O. Tedeschi, and D. G. Fox. 2007. A revised CNCPS feed carbohydrate fractionation scheme for formulating rations for ruminants. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 136: 167-190.
16- Licitra, G., T. Hernandez, and P. Van Soest. 1996. Standardization of procedures for nitrogen fractionation of ruminant feeds. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 57: 347-358.
17- Lopez Castaneda, C., R. A. Richards, D. G. Farquhar, and R. E. Williamson. 1996. Seed and seedling characteristics contributing to variation in early vigour among temperate cereals. Crop Science, 36: 1257-1266.
18- Larter, E. N., P. J. Kaltsikes., P. J, and R. C. Mcginnis. 1971. Effect of date and rate of seeding on the performance of titicale in comparison to wheat. Crop Science, 11: 593-595.
19- Morrison, W. R. 1995. Starch lipids and how they relate to starch granule structure and functionality. Cereal Foods World, 40: 437-446.
20- Mirzaii, A. H. R., H. Amanloo, and A. Nikkhah. 2005. Protein and carbohydrate fractions of common feedstuffs in the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein system. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Science, 2: 409-414. (In Persian).
21- National Research Council. 2001. Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle, 7th rev. ed. Natl. Acad Press, Washington, DC.
22- O'Connor, J. D., C. J. Sniffen., D. G. Fox, and W. Chalupa. 1993. A net carbohydrate and protein system for evaluating cattle diets: IV. Predicting amino acid adequacy. Journal of Animal Science, 71: 1298-1311.
23- Pitt, R