Chemical Composition, in vitro Digestibility and Fermentative Gas Production of Kochia scoparia Irrigated by Water Containing Different Level of Salinity

Document Type : Ruminant Nutrition

Authors

1 Ferdowsi University of Mashhad

2 Bu-Ali Sina University

3 Birjand University

Abstract

Introduction Shortage of feedstuff is one of the important problems of animal nutrition in Iran. Salinity is a global problem worldwide in particular in arid and semi-arid zones such as Iran. Salinity is an important factor in the growth of plants. Its initial effect to plants is through its effect in the availability of water to plants. Halophytes have good ability to draw water from soils of low water potential due to their ability to maintain a salt balance comparable to the salt in the soil they are growing. Lands in high irrigation districts are susceptible to soil salinization. Soil salinization is the primary cause of productivity decline in highly developed and irrigated land schemes While the increase in soil and water salinity in many agricultural areas of the world has created major challenges in the production of food crops, it has also presented some new prospects for livestock agriculture. There are plants that grow under saline conditions, and historically, they have been opportunistically used as fodder for grazing livestock or as components of mixed rations to replace roughage. Using of seawater for irrigation of this plant because of shortage of sweet water and for higher production of these plants was necessary for feedstuff. The aim of this study was evaluation of Chemical composition, In vitro digestibility and gas production of Kochia scoparia under six level of salinity including 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 ds/m.
Materials and Methods The Kochia scoparia was irrigated by normal tap water (the control) and water containing 6 levels of salinity including 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 deci Siemens per meter (ds/m). The salinity was applied gradually in accordance with the plant growth advancement (2 ds/m increment per each irrigation period. Oven dried (65◦C for 48 h) chopped samples were ground to pass through a 1-mm screen. The samples were analyzed according to the standard procedures for chemical composition (AOAC 2000, Van-Soest et al. 1991). Procedure of in vitro gas production was performed according to Menke and Steingass (1988). Rumen fluid was obtained from three fistulated Baluchi male lamb before morning feeding. The DM degradation data were fitted to the exponential equation p = a + b (1 - e-ct). The in vitro dry matter, NDF and organic matter digestibility were determined according to the Arroquy et al (2005) procedure. Test samples were incubated for different hrs and then filtered through the nylon cloth with the pore size of 44microns. The remaining materials were dried at 60 °C for 72 hrs and utilized for the subsequent analysis according to the procedure. In vitro gas production was completed according to the procedure described by Menke and Steingass (1988). Each sample, both original forages and insoluble residues, weighing about 200mg, were put into 100ml calibrated glass syringes (FORTUNA®, Häberle Labortechnik, Germany) together with 30ml rumen liquid media solution on a 1:2 ratio. Syringes were incubated in a water bath at 39°C, where a transparent plastic lid with holes held the syringes upright. Two blanks and a standard hay sample of known gas production were included in each run.
Results and Discussion NDF content of Kochia scoparia without salinity (irrigate with tap water) was higher than that for Kochia samples irrigated with various levels of salinity. Crude protein (CP) content of the control Kochia sample (11%) was significantly (p

Keywords


1- Abdel Aziz, D. M. 1982. A study of the nutritive value of some range plants in the North Western Coastal Desert. Ph.D. Thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, Aino Shams University, Egypt.
2- AOAC. 2000. Official Methods of Analysis. Association of Agricultural Chemists (17th Ed.). Virginia, DC., USA.
3- Arroquy, J. I., R. C. Cochran, T. G. Nagaraja, E. C. Titgemeyer and D. E. Johnson. 2005. Effect of types of non-fiber carbohydrate on in vitro forage fiber digestion of low-quality grass hay. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 120:93–106.
4- Buxton, D. R and J. R Russell. 1988. Lignin constituents and cell-wall digestibility of grass and legume stems. Crop Science, 28: 553–558.
5- DaneshMesgaran, M., and M. D. Stern. 2005. Ruminal and post-ruminal protein disappearance of various feeds originating from Iranian plant varieties determined by the in situ mobile bag technique and alternative methods. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 118: 31–46.
6- Francois, L. E. 1976. Salt tolerance of prostrate summer cypress (Kochiaprostrata). Agron. J. 68: 455-457.
7- Friesen, L. F., H. J. Beckie, S. I. Warwick, and R. C. Van Acker. 2009. The biology of Canadian weeds. 138. Kochia scoparia (L.) Schrad. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 89:141-167.
8- Fuehring, H. D., R. E. Finkner, and C. W. Oty. 1985. Yield and composition of kochia forage as affected by salinity of water and percent leaching. In Annual Report, NMSU Agriculture Science. Center at Clovis.
9- Galyean, M. L.; Goetsch, A. L. 1993. Utilization of forage fiber by ruminants. Forage Cell Wall Structure and Digestibility, forage cell walls: 33-71.‏
10- Guerrero-Rodriguez, J. D. 2006. Growth and nutritive value of Lucerne (Medicago sativa L.,) and Melilotus (MelilotusalbusMedik.) under saline conditions. Thesis (Ph.D.) School of Agriculture, Food and Wine Adelaide Australia.
11- Jami Al Ahmadi, M., and M. Kafi. 2008. Kochia (Kochia scoparia): To be or not to be? In: Crop and Forage Production using Saline Waters. (Eds.): M. Kafi and M.A. Khan. NAM S&T Centre. Daya Publisher, New Delhi.
12- Jung, H. G.; Deetz, D. A.1993. Cell wall lignification and degradability. Forage cell wall structure and digestibility, forage cell walls, 315-346.‏
13- Jung, H. G., D. R., Mertens, and A. J. Payne. 1997. Correlation of acid detergent lignin and Klason lignin with digestibility of forage dry matter and neutral detergent fibre. Journal of Dairy Science, 80, 1622–1628.
14- Kader, M. A., and S. C. Jutzi. 2004. Effects of thermal and salt treatments during imbibition on germination and seedling growth of sorghum at 42/19oC. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 190: 35-38.
15- Kafi, M., H. Asadi and A. Ganjeali. 2010. Possible utilization of high salinity waters and application of low amounts of water for production of the halophyte Kochia scoparia as alternative fodder in saline agroecosystems. Agriculture Water Management, 97: 139-147.
16- Lisita, G., T. M. Hernandes and P.J. Van soest. 1990. Standardization of procedure for nitrogen fractionation of ruminant feed. . Animal Feed Science and Technology, 57: 347-358.
17- Maas, E. V. 1993. Plant growth response to salt stress. In: Towards the rational use of high salinity tolerant plants. H. Lieth and A. Al Masoom (eds) 1:279-291. Kluwer Academic Publiction. Netherlands.
18- Maas, E. V., and G. J. Hoffman. 1977. Crop salt tolerance- current assessment. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Division, 103: 115-134.
19- McSweeny, C. S., B. Palmer, D. M. McNeill, and D. O. 2001. Microbial interactions with tannins: nutritional consequences for ruminants. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 91:83-93.
20- Menke, K. H., and H. staingass. 1988. Estimation of energetic feed value obtained from chemical analysis and in vitro gas production using rumen fluid. Animal Research Development, 28:7-55
21- Mertens, D. R., Loften, J. R. 1980. The effect of starch on forage fiber digestion kinetics in vitro. Journal of Dairy Science, 63:1437–1446.
22- Mir, Z., S. Bittman, and L. Townley-Smith. 1991. Nutritive value of kochia (Kochia scoparia) hay or silage grown in a black soil zone in northeastern Saskatchewan for sheep. Canadian Journal of Animal Science,701: 107-114.
23- Mowat, D. N., R. S. Fulkerson, W. E. Tossell and J. E .Winch. 1965. The in vitro digestibility and protein content of leaf and stem portions of foragers. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 45:321-331.
24- Ørskov, E. R. and McDonald, I. 1979. The estimation of protein degradability in the rumen from incubation measurements weighted according to rate of passage. Journal of Agriculture Science, 92: 499-503.
25- Pedraza O M R 1998 Use of in vitro gas production to assess the contribution of both soluble and insoluble fractions on the nutritive value of forages. Ph.D. Thesis University of Aberdeen, Scotland.
26- Poljakoff-Mayber, A. 1975. Morphological and anatomical changes in plants as a response to salinity stress. In A. Poljakoff-Mayber and J. Gale (eds.), Plants in Saline Environment, Ecological Series 15. Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, New York, pp. 97-117.
27- Riasi, A., M. DaneshMesgaran, M.D. Stern, and M.J. Ruiz Moreno. 2008. Chemical composition, in situ ruminal degradability and post-ruminal disappearance of dry matter and crude protein from the halophytic plants Kochia scoparia, Atriplex dimorphostegia, Suaeda arcuata and Gamanthusgamacarpus. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 141: 209-219.
28- Russel, J. B., J. D. O Connor, D. G. Fox, P. J. Van Soet and C. J. Sniffer. 1992. A net carbohydrate and protein system for evaluating cattle diets. I. Ruminal fermentation. Journal of Animal Science, 70: 3551-3561.
29- Salehi, M., M. Kafi, and A. Kiani. 2009. Growth analysis of kochia (Kochia scoparia (L.) schrad) irrigated with saline water in summer cropping. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 41: 1861-1870.
30- SAS. 2001. SAS user’s guide. SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, North, Carolina, USA.
31- Shannon, M. C., C. M. Grieve and L. E. Francois. 1994. Whole-plant response to salinity. In: R.E. Wilkinson, Editor, Plant–Environment Interactions, Mercel Dekker, New York. 199–244.
32- Sherrod, L. B. 1971. Nutritive value of Kochia scoparia. I. Yield and chemical composition at three stages of maturity. Agronomy Journal, 63: 343-344.
33- Sherrod, L.B. 1973. Nutritive value of kochia hay compared with alfalfa hay. J. Dairy Sci. 56: 923-926.
34- Singleton, V. L., and J. A. Rossi. 1965. Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic-phosphotungstic acid reagents. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 16:144–153.
35- Soleimani, M. R., M. Kafi, M. Ziaee and J. Shabahang. 2008. Effect of limited irrigation with saline water on forage of two local populations of Kochia scoparia L. Schrad. Journal of water & soil, 22: 148-156.
36- Travis, A. J., S. D. Murison, P. Perry and A. Chesson. 1997. Measurement of cell wall volume using confocal microscopy and its application to studies of forage degradation. Annals of Botany, 80: 1-11.
37- Van Soest PJ, Roberson JB and Lewis BA, 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science, 74:3583-3597.