نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، گرگان
2 دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان
3 گروه تغذیه دام و طیور، دانشکده علوم دامی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، گرگان، ایران
4 مرکز تحقیقات جهاد کشاورزی گرگان
5 دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان
عنوان مقاله [English]
Introduction: The fodder used in animal feed is in the form of silage, crushed and pellets. If used a pellet diet, the animal will spend less time eating, so as activity decreases, so will its maintenance needs. Part of the improvement in pellet diet is due to less energy consumption during feeding. In other words, the use of pellet rations reduces the energy consumed by the animal for eating and also increases the availability of vital nutrients and energy. Alfalfa is one of the forage plants that can produce more than two tons of protein per hectare per year. The pellet alfalfa perfect feed for dairy cows, sheep and goats, horses, camels, rabbits and other livestock animals as it improves their performance and production. The activities of ruminal protozoa contribute significantly to the digestion of plant cell wall polymers and their absence from the rumen may have a negative effect on the extent of fibre digestion. Fiber-degrading enzymes include total cellulase activity, carboxymethylcellulase, and microcrystalline cellulase. The activity of these enzymes is in three separate parts of the rumen contents, including tiny particles (microbes attached to the rumen particle), intracellular part (cells that are freely suspended in the liquid part of the ruminal fluid) and extracellular part (enzymes in the liquid part) are measured. Aim investigate the effect of alfalfa physical shape and barley grain processing on on nitrogen retention, activity of enzyme cellulolytic, blood parameters and rumen microbial population in Dalagh breed fattening lambs.
Materials and Methods: 30 male lambs with an approximate age of 3.5±1/2 months with an average weight of 17 ± 1.1was used. The experiment was statistically analyzed in the form of a factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design with two factors. The experimental variables include: physical form of forage and barley grain processing. In the 98 day period (14 days of habituation and 84 days of the main course) with 6 treatments and 5 replications. Experimental diets were equal in protein and energy content and includes: Pelleted alfalfa with whole barley grain 2- plleted alfalfa with ground barley grain 3- plleted alfalfa with flaked barley grain 4- alfalfa with whole barley grain 5-alfalfa with ground barley grain 6 -Alfalfa with flaked barley grain. Rumen fluid was sampled on day 84 at 3 hours after Feeding was done and blood samples were taken from the cows in the penultimate week of the fattening period 3 hours after morning feeding from the cervical vein.
Results and Discussion: Pelleted alfalfa increased nitrogen consumption compared to chopped alfalfa. The processing of flaked and milled barley seeds in comparison with whole barley grains caused that in the treatment of flaky barley, the total number of bacteria and rumen protozoa was more than whole barley grains and ground.
Nitrogen consumption and fecal nitrogen in lambs 'feces were significantly affected by the physical shape of the forage, so that pellet alfalfa increased nitrogen consumption and fecal nitrogen excretion in lambs' feces compared to chopped hay. The physical shape of the forage could not cause a significant change in the total number of rumen, lactic acid, coliform and rumen protozoa (P <0.05). Different treatments of barley processing significantly changed the total number of bacteria and rumen protozoa and in barley treatment the total number of bacteria and rumen protozoa was more than the other two treatments. The total number of bacteria and rumen protozoa in the treatment of barley flakes> flour barley> whole barley. The activity of carboxymethylcellulase and microcrystalline cellulase enzymes in three cellular, extracellular, solid and total rumen fluids of pellets fed with pellet alfalfa was higher than chopped alfalfa but there was no significant difference (P <0.05). Also, between different treatments in terms of type of processing, carboxymethylcellulase enzyme activity in three parts of cellular, extracellular, solid and total ruminal fluid of lambs fed barley was significantly higher than lambs fed barley And it was barley seeds. The blood glucose level of lambs was significantly higher in the barley flake treatment than whole and milled barley.The processing of flaked and milled barley seeds in comparison with whole barley grains caused that in the treatment of flaky barley, the total number of bacteria and rumen protozoa was more than whole barley grains and ground. The processing of flaked and milled barley seeds in comparison with whole barley grains caused that in the treatment of flaked barley, the total number of bacteria and rumen protozoa was more than whole barley grains and milled.
Conclusion: The results of our experiment showed that the use of fodder in the diet in the form of pellets in the fattening of lambs has the best performance in terms of the efficiency of ruminal parameters, which ultimately ensures the health of livestock and also increases nitrogen consumption. According to the results of barley grain processing, flaky barley compared to whole barley improved the efficiency of ruminal parameters and increased the total number of bacteria and nitrogen in the blood. In general, alfalfa and barley processing in this study had no significant effect on ruminal enzymes, number of protozoa, lactic acid and coliforms, and nitrogen retention and digestion.
ارسال نظر در مورد این مقاله