عنوان مقاله [English]
Introduction Mummies are the brown or black hydrocarbon that are produced deep layers of earth or mountain and contain a significant percentage of benzoic acid, humic acid, and folic acid, fatty acids, inulin, and resins. The mummy probably reduces the acidity of the digestive content and increases the activity of its microbial acid-loving population, and ultimately increases the digestibility of nutrients (protein and fat) and improves body weight gain. On the other hand, pulicariap gnaphalodes is an herbaceous, perennial, with straight stems, dense leaves and hazelnut fruit. The pulicariap gnaphalodes store energy in the form of fructan and inulin. The most active component of it is 8, 1-cinnamol (22.93%), alpha pinene (8.13%), amorphous-9, 4DN-2-L (8.36%), myrtenol (7.24%). Percent). Quercetin and its derivatives are the main flavonoids in pulicariap gnaphalodes. Inulin plays a prebiotic role in poultry diets and improves the intestinal environment. Improving the intestinal environment increases the immune response and growth performance. The strong antibacterial properties of Pulicaria gnaphalodes due to its polyphenolic compounds, especially quercetin, has the ability to neutralize free radicals and reduce feed conversion ratio. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the effect of Pulicaria gnaphalodes extract and mummy on growth performance, blood biochemical indices, immune system and jejunal morphology of broiler chickens.
Materials and Methods A total of 360 one-day-old Ross 308 chicks was used in 9 treatments (three levels of Pulicaria gnaphalodes extract (PGE) (0, 100, and 200 mg/kg) and three levels of mummy (0, 20 and 40 mg/L). 3 replicates, and 10 birds. The experiment was done in a completely randomized design with 3 × 3 factorial design. The growth performance indices were recorded at the end of each period of starter (1-10 days), grower (11-24 days), finisher (25-42 days). At the end of the experiment, two birds from each replicate were slaughtered to study the relative weight of the carcass components. The blood of two birds of each replicate were gathered, then the sera were extracted and freezed at -20 oC at 42 days. To study the jejunal morphology, a slice of 1 cm from the midpoint of jejunum from each slaughtered birds were separated, then it was placed in formalin until send laboratory. The statistical analyses were done with SAS software with GLM procedure. The Tukey test was used to compare average treatments.
Results and Discussion The results showed that growth performance traits including feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio did not affect by the interaction effects of mummy powder and PGE, except for body weight gain index and feed conversion ratio that was affected at the finisher period. The highest weight gain was observed in broilers fed 20 mg of mummy + 200 mg of PGE compared to the control group. Mummies contain a significant percentage of benzoic acid, humic acid, and folic acid, fatty acids, inulin, and resins. The mummy probably reduces the acidity of the digestive content and increases the activity of its microbial acid-loving population, and ultimately increases the digestibility of nutrients (protein and fat) and improves body weight gain. The PGE also is an energy source in the form of inulin, inulin plays a prebiotic role in poultry diets and improves the intestinal environment. Improving the intestinal environment increases the immune response and growth performance. Due to its polyphenolic compounds, especially quercetin, PGE has the ability to neutralize free radicals and reduce feed conversion ratio. The mummy compares to control significantly increased carcass weight and breast relative weight (P <0.05). Both experimental dietary treatments significantly increased liver, bile, heart, spleen and relative weight bursa (P <0.05). The interaction of PGE and mummy increased the antibody titer against SRBC and immunoglobin M and G compared to control (P <0.05). Increasing the relative weight gain of lymphoid organs is a sign of the development of the immune system. Pandey et al. (28) have reported that quercetin supplementation in poultry feed increases the relative weight of Fabricius and Thymus. The interaction effect of PGE and mummy powder at the level of 40 mummy and 100 extracts improved the relative weight of lymphatic organs and antibody titer against SRBC. In this study, no significant alterations were observed in the concentration of blood protein, triglyceride, and high-density lipoprotein of broilers fed different dietary treatments. The birds fed 40 mummy and 200 PGE caused a decrease in LDL concentration, cholesterol, and aspartate aminotransferase activity compared to control (P <0.05). Phenolic compounds in herbal extracts reduce blood cholesterol by lowering the activity of key enzyme-regulating cholesterol-building enzymes (3- hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A) HMG-CoA liver reeducates.
Conclusion These findings showed that the addition of mummy and PGE at 20 mg/l of water and 200 mg/kg of feed together respectively in the diet may improve growth performance, reduce abdominal fat and blood lipids and liver enzyme activity in broiler chickens.