بررسی ارزش تغذیه‌ای کاه گندم و سرشاخه نیشکر عمل‌آوری شده توسط باکتری‌های تجزیه کننده‌ی لیگنین و لیگنوسلولز جدا شده از روده لارو کرم خراط (Zeuzera pyrina L.)

نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی - تغذیه نشخوارکنندگان

نویسندگان

1 گروه علوم دامی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه لرستان

2 گروه گیاهپزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه لرستان

3 Ph.D. Student, Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Lorestan University

4 بخش تحقیقات علوم دامی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان خوزستان (اهواز)، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی

چکیده

هدف از انجام مطالعه حاضر بررسی ارزش تغذیه‌ای کاه گندم و سرشاخه نیشکر عمل‌آوری شده توسط باکتری‌های تجزیه کننده لیگنین و لیگنوسلولز جدا شده از دستگاه گوارش لارو کرم خراط (Zeuzera pyrina L.) بود. بدین منظور، ابتدا بر اساس آنالیز توالی 16S rDNA، سه ایزوله باکتریایی با قابلیت تجزیه‌کنندگی لیگنین و لیگنوسلولز شامل انتروباکتر کلواسه (Enterobacter cloacae)، استافیلوکوکوس اسکویری (Staphylococcus sciuri) و گونه بروی‌باکتریوم (Brevibacterium sp.) از دستگاه گوارش این کرم جداسازی شد. سپس هر کدام از دو سوبسترای کاه گندم و سرشاخه نیشکر به‌طور مجزا توسط هر کدام از ایزوله‌های مذکور یا مخلوط هر سه آن‌ها (4 تیمار آزمایشی برای هر سوبسترا) فرآوری شدند. در هر دو سوبسترا، بیشترین میزان ناپدید شدن ماده خشک، پروتئین خام، گوارش‌پذیری ماده خشک و انرژی قابل متابولیسم در تیمار حاوی مخلوط باکتریایی روده‌ی کرم خراط و کمترین در تیمار شاهد به دست آمد. بیشترین حجم و پتانسیل تولید گاز (b) پس از عمل‎‌آوری سوبستراها توسط مخلوط باکتریایی روده‌ی کرم خراط در مقایسه با تیمار شاهد به دست آمد. در هر دو سوبسترا، بیشترین غلظت کل اسیدهای چرب فرار شکمبه، استات، نسبت استات به پروپیونات و غلظت آمونیاک توسط انکوباسیون تیمار تلقیح شده با مخلوط باکتریایی در مقایسه با تیمار شاهد به دست آمد. در کل، نتایج این پژوهش نشان داد که عمل‌آوری کاه گندم و سرشاخه نیشکر توسط باکتری‌های مجزای روده‌ی کرم خراط، به خصوص مخلوط آنها سبب بهبود ارزش غذایی پسماندهای مذکور از طریق افزایش قابلیت هضم ماده خشک و غلظت اسیدهای چرب فرار شکمبه جهت استفاده به‌عنوان خوراک دام شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating nutritive value of wheat straw and sugarcane tops treated with bacteria with lignin and lignocellulose-degrading potential isolated from Zeuzera pyrina L. larvae gut

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ayoub Azizi 1
  • Jahanshir Shakarami 2
  • Fahimeh Dehghanikhah 3
  • Afrooz Sharifi 4
1 Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Lorestan University
2 Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Lorestan University
4 Animal Science Research Department, Khuzestan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Ahvaz
چکیده [English]

Introduction[1]: There is a shortage of animal feed and water resources in many countries around the world. Numerous agricultural by-products are produced annually in all countries, thus their proper use is often a useful means of overcoming this problem. Large proportions of these materials are important feeds for ruminant animals and can be used as a potentially significant source of energy. However, the use of these materials as ruminant feed is limited because of their complex structure, low protein and high lignin content. Different physical and chemical methods have been used to increase the nutritive value of such by-products. Although these methods have advantages, they are costly, relatively ineffective and environmentally unfriendly and require the application of technology. Recently, biological processing of lignocellulosic biomass has been considered as an alternative approach. Three groups of organisms are able to biodegrade lignin namely, white rot fungi, some soil microbes and termites. In recent years, increased attention has been given to the role of bacteria in lignin degradation in agricultural by-products. Insects that utilize wood as a food source are beetles, cockroaches and termites. Termites are especially well known for their ability to break down the lignin barrier and digest carbohydrate polymers. Researcher has isolated 3 bacterial species from the Anacanthotermes vagans termite gut, including Bacillus sp., Enterobacter sp., and Ochrobacterium sp. These bacteria could grow on different media containing lignin and lignocellulosic materials prepared from water extracted wheat straw and sawdust as a sole source of carbon and energy. In another study three bacteria include Bacillus licheniformis, Ochrobactrum intermedium and Microbacterium paludicola were isolated by culturing the gut contents of the termite Microcerotermes diversus on different media containing lignin and lignocellulose as a sole source of carbon and energy. Isolates could partially change the chemical composition of the wheat straw and date leaves, while nutrient digestibility increased. However, Zeuzera pyrina L. is also another insect which degrade lignocellulose. Larval tunnels in the wood and girdling burrows under the bark are visible at the ends of broken stems. Numerous partly broken branches with dead brown foliage hanging in tree crowns are characteristic of heavy infestations. In our knowledge, little work has been done on the isolation of lignin and lignocellulose-degrading bacteria from gut of Zeuzera pyrina. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to isolate and identify symbiotic lignocellulosic degrading bacteria from the Zeuzera pyrina L. gut, and to investigate their effects on the nutritive value of wheat straw and sugarcane tops as ruminant feed.
Material and Methods: This experiment was conducted in animal house and laboratories of Lorestan University. Two Lori cows (about five years old) with permanent rumen fistula were used as rumen liquor donor in present study. A two-week diet adaptation period was followed by collection of the rumen contents from each cow before the morning feeding. The aim of the present study was investigate nutritive value of wheat straw (WS) and sugarcane tops (ST) treated with bacteria isolated from gut of Zeuzera pyrina. For this purpose, first, based on 16S rDNA sequence analysis, 3 bacteria including Enterobacter cloacae, Staphylococcus sciuri and Brevibacterium sp., with lignin and lignocellulose-degrading potential were isolated from gut of this insect. Thereafter, each of WS or ST were processed with these isolated individually or with mix of them (totally 4 treatment group for each substrate) in liquid medium. Chemical composition, in vitro gas production (IVGP) and fermentation parameters of these two processed by-product were determined compared to control treatment.
Results and Discussion: Results showed that highest amount of dry matter (DM) loss, crude protein, in vitro DM digestibility and metabolizable energy was observed in both substrates (i.e., WS and ST) treated with bacterial mixture of Zeuzera pyrina compared to control. Highest volume of IVGP and potential of GP (b) were observed after processing by bacterial mixture of Zeuzera pyrina compared to control treatment (P>0.05). Highest volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration, acetate, acetate to propionate ratio and ammonia-N concentration were observed in substrates inoculated with bacterial mixture in comparison with control treatment (P<0.05).
Conclusion: In this experiment, we isolated three bacteria including Enterobacter cloacae, Staphylococcus sciuri and Brevibacterium sp., with lignin and lignocellulose-degrading potential from the gut of Zeuzera pyrina. Processing WS and ST with these individual bacteria, especially media containing their mixture improved their nutritive value as ruminant feed via increasing DM digestibility and VFA production.                  
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Gas production
  • Lignocellulose
  • Nutritive value
  • Ruminants
  • Zeuzera pyrina
  1. . Abd El-Rahman, H., A. A. Abedo, Y. A. A. El-Nomeary, S. S. Abdel-Magid, and M. I. Mohamed. 2014. Effect of biological treatments of rice straw on growth performance, digestion and economical efficiency for growing calves. Global Veterinary, 13(1):47–54.

    1. AOAC. 2002. Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International (17th Ed., 1th rev.). Gaithersburg (MD): Association of Official Analytical Chemists.
    2. Ashtari, M., J. Karimi, M. Z. Rezapanah, and M. Hassani-kakhki. 2011. Biocontrol of leopard moth, Zeuzera pyrina L. (Lep.: Cossidae) using entomopathogenic nematodes in Iran. Insect Pathogens and Entomopathogenic Nematodes, 66: 333-335.
    3. Ausubel, F. M., R. Brent, R. E. Kingstone, D. D. Moore, J. G. Seidman, J. A. Smith, and K. Struhl. 1992. Short protocols in molecular biology, Second edition. JohnWiley and Sons, New York, pp. 1–15.
    4. Azizi, A., M. R. G. Maia, A. J. M. Fonseca, A. Sharifi, H. Fazaeli, and A. R. J. Cabrita. 2018. Rumen fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass from wheat straw and date leaf inoculated with bacteria isolated from termite gut. Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences, 27: 211-218.
    5. Azizi, A., T. Mohammadabadi, H. Motamadi, M. Chaji, and H. Fazaeli. 2017. Determination of optimum temperature and pH for lignocellulosic materials-degrading bacteria isolated from termite gut and their effect on the digestibility and in vitro fermentation parameters of some agricultural by-products. Journal of Animal Science Research, 27: 69-85 (In Persian).
    6. Azizi-Shotorkhoft, A., T. Mohammadabadi, H. Motamedi, M. Chaji, and H. Fazaeli. 2016. Isolation and identification of termite gut symbiotic bacteria with lignocellulose-degrading potential, and their effects on the nutritive value for ruminants of some by-products. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 221: 234-242.
    7. Borji, M. 2003. The Survey Possibility of Straw Polysaccharides and Lignin Degradation by Isolated Microbiota from Termites PhD Thesis. Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran (In Persian).
    8. Broderick, G. and J. H. Kang. 1980. Automated simultaneous determination of ammonia and total amino acids in ruminal fluid and in vitro media. Journal of Dairy Science, 63: 64–75.
    9. Calzada, J., F. Franco, M. C. Arriola, C. Rolz, and M. A. Ortiz. 1987. Acceptability, body weight changes and digestibility of spent wheat straw after harvesting of Pleuprotus sajor-caju fed to lambs. Biological Wastes, 22: 303-309.
    10. Cottyn, B. G. and C. V. Boucque. 1968. Rapid method for the gas-chromatographic determination of volatile fatty acids in rumen fluid. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 16: 105–107.
    11. Fazaeli, H. 2008. Digestibility and voluntary intake of fungal-treated wheat straw in sheep and cow. Agricultural Science, 12 (43): 523-531.
    12. Getachew, G., M. Blummel, H. P. S. Makkar, and K. Becker. 1998. In vitro gas measuring techniques for assessment of nutritional quality of feeds: a review. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 1998: 72: 261–281.
    13. Ghasemi, E., G. R. Ghorbani, M. Khorvash, and K. Karimi. 2014. Adjustment of pH and enzymatic treatment of barley straw by dry processing method. Journal of Applied Animal Research, 42:1-6.
    14. Ghasemi, E., M. Khorvash, G. R. Ghorbani, M. R. Emami, and K. Karimi. 2013. Dry chemical processing and ensiling of rice straw to improve its quality for use as ruminant feed. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 45: 1215–1221.
    15. Kato, K., S. Kozaki, and M. Sakuranaga. 1998. Degradation of lignin compounds by bacteria from termite guts. Biotechnology Letters, 20: 459-462.
    16. Kerr, T. J. and R. D. Kerr. 1987. Microorganisms having characteristics of an Arthrobacter capable of degrading peanut hull lignin. United State Patent, 4, 643,899.
    17. Lane, D. J., B. Pace, G. J. Olsen, D. A. Stahl, M. L. Sogin, and N. R. Pace, 1985. Rapid determination of 16s ribosomal RNA sequences for phylogenetic analyses. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 82: 6955-6959
    18. Loor, J. J., A. A. Elolimy, and J. C. McCann. 2016. Dietary impacts on rumen microbiota in beef and dairy production Animal Frontiers, 6: 22–29.
    19. Marten, G. C. and R. F. Barnes. 1980. Prediction of energy digestibility of forages with in vitro rumen fermentation and fungal enzymes systems. In: Pidgen, W. J., C. C. Balch, and M. Graham (Eds), Standardization of analytical methodology for feeds. International Development Research Center, Ottawa, pp. 61-71.
    20. Menke, K. H. and H. Steingass. 1988. Estimation of the energetic feed value obtained from chemical analysis and gas production using rumen fluid. Animal Research and Development, 28: 7–55.
    21. Moyson, E. and H. Verachtert. 1991. Growth of higher fungi on wheat straw and their impact on the digestibility of the substrate. Journal of Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 36: 421-424.
    22. Nasehi, M, N. M. Torbatinejad, S. Zerehdaran, A. R. Safaei. 2014. Effect of (Pleurotus florida) fungi on chemical composition and rumen degradability of wheat and barley straw. Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science, 4(2): 257-261
    23. NRC. 2001. Nutrient Requirements for Dairy Cattle (7th rev. Ed.). USA: National Academy Press. Washington, DC.
    24. Okano, K., N. Ohkoshi, A. Nishiyama, T. Usagawa, and M. Kitagawa. 2009. Improving the nutritive value of madake bamboo, Phyllostachys bambusoides, for ruminants by culturing with the white-rot fungus Ceriporiopsis subvermispora. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 152: 278–285.
    25. Ørskov, E. R. and I. McDonald. 1979. The estimation of protein degradabil­ity in the rumen from incubation measurements weighed ac­cording to rate of passage. Journal of Agricultural Science, 92: 499–503.
    26. Pashaei, S., V. Razmazar, and R. Mirshekar. 2010. Gas production: a proposed in vitro method to estimate the extent of digestion of a feedstuff in the tumen. Journal of Biological Sciences, 10: 573-580.
    27. Robertson, J. B. and P. J. Van Soest, 1981. The detergent system of analysis and its application to human foods. In: James W. P. T., O. Theander (Eds.), The Analysis of Dietary Fiber in Food. (pp. 123-158). Marcel Dekker, New York, USA.
    28. Salman, F. M., R. I. El-Kadi, H. Abdel-Rahman, S, M. Ahmed, M. I. Mohamed, and M. M. Shoukry. 2008. Biologically treated sugar beet pulp as a supplement ingoat rations. International Journal of Agricultural Biology, 10: 412–416.
    29. SAS Institute Inc. 2005. User’s Guide: Statistics, Version 9.0 Edition. SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC.
    30. Shrivastava, B., P. Nandal, A. Sharma, K. K. Jain, Y. P. Khasa, T. P. Das, V. Mani, N. J. Kewalramani, S. S. Kundu, and R. C. Kuhad. 2012. Solid state bioconversionof wheat straw into digestible and nutritive ruminant feed by Ganoderma sp rckk02. Bioresource Technology, 107: 347–351.
    31. Theodorou, M. K., B. A.Williams, M. S. Dhanoa, A. B. McAllan, and J. France. 1994. A simple gas production method using a pressure transducer to determine the fermentation kinetics of ruminant feeds. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 48: 185–197.
    32. Ulyshen, M. D. 2016. Wood decomposition as influenced by invertebrates. Biological Reviews, 91: 70-85.
    33. VanSoest, P. J. 1994. Nutritional Ecology of the Ruminant, 2nd ed. Cornell Univ. Press, Itacha, NY, USA, pp. 476.
    34. Vercoe, P. E., H. P. S. Makkar, and A. C. Schlink. 2010. In vitro screening of plant resources for extra-nutritional attributes in ruminants: nuclear and related methodologies. Springer Verlag Gmbh.
    35. Voirol, L. R. P., E. Frago, M. Kaltenpoth, M. Hilker, and N. E. Fatouros. 2018. Bacterial symbionts in lepidoptera: their diversity, transmission, and impact on the host. Fronteries in Microbiolgy, 27: 549-:556.
    36. Weisburg, W. G., S. M. Borns, D. A. Pelltier, and D. J. Lane. 1991. 16s Ribosomal DNA amplification for phylogenetic study. Journal of Bacteriology, 173(6): 697-703.
    37. Yoshida, N., T. Takahashi, T. Nagao, and J. Chen. 1993. Effect of edible mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) cultivation on in vitro digestibility of wheat straw and sawdust substrate. Japanese Journal of Grassland Science, 39: 177-182.