1- AJetor, J. I., Hamid, and E. Pfeffer. 2000. Low protein, amino acid - supplemented diets in broiler chickens. Effects on performance, carcass characteristics, whole body composition and efficiencies of nutrient utilization. Journal of Science and Food Agriculture, 80:547-554.
2- Allen, N. K., and D. H. Baker. 1972. Effect of excess lysine on the utilization of and requirement of arginine by the chick. Poultry Science, 51: 902-906.
3- Baker, D. H., and Y. Han. 1994. Ideal amino acid profile for broiler chicks during the first three weeks posthatching. Poultry Scienc, 73: 1441-1447.
4- Ball, R. O., K. L. Urschel, and P. B. Pencharz. 2007. Nutritional consequences of interspecies differences in arginine and lysine metabolism. Journal of Nutrition, 137: 1626S-1641S.
5- Bequette, B. J. 2003. Amino acid metabolism in animals, in: D'MELLO, J.P.F. (Ed.) Amino Acids in Animal Nutrition, pp. 87-101 (CABI Publishing).
6- Blair, R., J. P. Jacob, S. Ibrahim, and P. Wang. 1999. A quantitative assessment of reduced protein diets and supplements to improved nitrogen utilization. Applied Poulry Research, 8: 25-47.
7- Boomgaardt, J., and D. H. Baker, 1973. The lysine requirement of growing chicks fed sesame meal-gelatin diets at three protein levels. Poultry Science, 52:586–591.
8- Bregendahl, K., J. L. Sell, and D. R. Zimmerman. 2002. Effect of low-protein diets on growth performance and body composition of broiler chicks. Poultry Science, 81: 1156-1167.
9- Burton, E. M., and P. W. Waldroup. 1979. Arginine and lysine needs of young broiler chicks. Nutrition Report International, 19: 607-614.
10- Carlisle, E. M. 1986. Silicon as an essential trace element in animal nutrition. Pages 123–139 in Silicon Biochemistry. D. Evered and M. O’Conner, ed. John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY.
11- Chevalley, T., R. Rizzoli, D. Manen, J. Caverzasio, and J. P. Bonjour. 1998. Arginine increases insulin-like growth factor- I production and collagen synthesis in osteoblast-like cells. Bone, 23: 103–109.
12- Colao, A., C. Di Somma, R. Pivonello, S. Loche, G. Aimaretti, and G. Cerbone. 1999. Bone loss is correlated to the severity of growth hormone deficiency in adult patients with hypopituitarism. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology Metabolism, 84: 1919–1924.
13- Corzo, A., C. A. Fritts, M. T. Kidd, and B. J. Kerr. 2005. Response of broiler chicks to essential and non-essential amino acid supplementation of low crude protein diets. Animal Feed Sciene Technology, 118: 319-327.
14- Corzo, A., C. D. Mc Daniel, M. T. Kidd, E. R. Miller, B. B. Boren, and B. I. Fancher. 2004. Impact of dietary amino acid concentration on growth, carcass yield, and uniformity of broilers. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 55: 1133-1138.
15- Corzo, A., E. T. Moran, and D. Hoehler. 2003. Arginine Need of Heavy Broiler Males: Applying the Ideal Protein Concept. Poulry. Science, 82: 402-407.
16- Corzo, A., R. G. Teeter, and C. Wiemusz. 2000. A time dependent evaluation of the broiler's 0 to 42 day dietary protein requirement. 89th Annual Meeting Poultry Science. Assoc, P.14.
17- Cuca, M., and L. S. Jensen. 1990. Arginine requirement of starting broiler chicks. Poultry Science, 69: 1377-1382.
18- Daghir, N. J. 1983. Effect of lysine and methionine supplementation of low protein roaster diets fed after six weeks of age. Poultry Science, 62: 1572-1579.
19- Davis, A. J., and R. E. Austic. 1997. Dietary protein and amino acid levels alter threonine dehydrogenase activity in hepatic mitochondria of Gallus domesticus. Journal of Nutrition, 127: 738–744.
20- Dean, W. F., and H. M. Scott. 1965. The development of an amino acid reference diet for the early growth of chicks. Poultry Science, 44: 803-808.
21- Eits, R. M., R. P. Kwakkel, M. W. A. Verstegen, and L. A. Den Hartog. 2005. Dietary balanced protein in broiler chickens. 1. A flexible and practical tool to predict dose-response curves. British Poultry Science, 46(3): 300-309.
22- Fancher, B. I., and L. S. Jensen. 1989. Influence on performance of three to six- week old broilers of varying dietary protein contents with supplementation of essential amino acid requirements. Poultry Science, 68: 113-123.
23- Ferguson, N. S., R. S. Gates, J. L. Taraba, A. H. Cantor, A. J. Pescator, M. J. Ford, and D. J. Burnham. 1998. The effect of dietary crude protein on growth, ammonia concentration and litter composition in broiler. Poultry Science, 71: 1481-1487.
24- Fernandez, J. I. M., A. E. Murakami, E. N. Martins, M. I. Sakamoto, and E. R. M. Garcia. 2009. Effect of arginine on the development of the pectoralis muscle and the diameter and the protein: deoxyribonucleic acid rate of its skeletal myofibers in broilers. Poultry Science, 88: 1399-1406
25- Figares, F., R. Nieto, J. F. Aguilera, and C. Prieto. 1996. The use of the excretion of nitrogen compounds as an indirect index of the adequacy of dietary protein in chickens. Animal Science, 63: 307-314.
26- Garu, C. R. 1984. Effect of protein level on the lysine requirement of the chicks. Journal of Nutrition. 36: 99-108.
27- Hassanabadi, A., M. Hoseini, and F. Alipour. 2011. The effects of different levels of dietary crude protein and lysine on performance and apparent nitrogen retention in broiler chickens. Iranian Journal of Animal Science Research, 3 (3): 204-210.
28- Hurwitz, S., D. Sklan, H. Talpaz, and I. Plavnik. 1998. The effect of dietary protein level on the lysine and arginine requirements of growing chickens. Poultry Science, 77: 689-696.
29- Ibrahim, S. 1997. Modified poultry diets: An approach to sustainable animal production (farm wastes, crude protein, amino acids, nitrogen, phosphorous, phytase) Ph. D. dissertation, The University of British Columbia.
30- Kidd, M. T. 2000. Nutritional consideration concerning threonine in broilers. Worid's Poult, 56: 139-151.
31- Kidd, M. T., and B. J. Kerr. 1996. L-threonine fir poultry: a review. Applied Poultry Research, 5: 358-367.
32- Kidd, M. T., B. J. Kerr, J. A. England, and P. W. Waldroup. 1997. Performance and Carcass Composition of Large White Toms as Affected by Dietary Crude Protein and Threonine Supplements. Poultry Science, 76: 1392–1397.
33- Kidd, M. T., E. D. Peebles, S. K. Whitmarsh, J. B. Yeatman, and R. F. Wideman Jr. 2001. Growth and immunity of broiler chicks as affected by dietary arginine. Poultry Science, 80: 1535-1542.
34- Krautmann, B. A., S. M. Hauge, E. T. Mertz, and C. W. Carrick. 1957. The arginine level for chicks as influenced by ingredients. Poultry Science, 36: 935-941.
35- Le Floc’h, N., B. Seve, and Y. Henry. 1994. The addition of glutamic acid or protein to a threonine-deficient diet differentially affects growth performance and threonine dehydrogenase activity in fattening pigs. Journal of Nutrition, 124: 1987–1995.
36- Leclercq, B. 1998. Specific of lysine on broiler production: comparison with theronine and valine. Poultry Science, 77: 118-123.
37- Leveilla, G. A., A. S. Feigenbaum, and H. Fisher. 1960. The effect of dietary protein, fat and cholesterol on plasma cholesterol and serum protein components of the growing chick. Archive of Biochemystry and Biophysiology, 86: 67.
38- Malomo, G. A., S. A. Bolu, and S. G. Olutade. 2013. Effects of dietary crude protein on erformance and nitrogen economy of broilers. Sustainable Agriculture Research, 2: 52.57.
39- Mendonca, C. X., and L. S. Jensen, 1989. Influence of protein concentration on the sulfur-containing amino acid requirement of broiler chickens. British Poultry Science, 30:889–898.
40- Mitchell, H. H., L. E. Card, and W. T. Haines. 1927. The effect of age, sex, and castration on the basal heat production of chickens. Journal of Agricultural Research, 34: 945-960.
41- Morris, T. R., K. Alazzawi, R. M. Gous, and G. L. Simpson. 1987. Effects of protein concentration on responses to dietary lysine by chicks. Journal of British Poultry Science, 28: 185-195.
42- Morris, T. R., R. M. Gous, and C. Fisher. 1999. An analysis of the hypothesis that amino acid requirements for chicks should be stated as a proportion of dietary protein. World's Poultry Science, 55: 7-22.
43- Nakaue, H. S., and G. H. Arscott. 1991. Feeding Poultry. In: Livestock Feeds and Feeding. 3rd Ed. D.C. Church, Ed. Prentice Hall. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.
44- Robbins, K. R. 1988. Threonine requirement of the broiler chicks as affected by protein level and sources. Poultry Science, 67: 1531-1534.
45- Ross Nutrition manual. 2009. Ross 308 broiler nutrition specification. Aviagen, Newbridge, Midlothian, UK.
46- SAS. 1988. Statistics. User's Guide, Version 6 ed., SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC.
47- Schaart, M. W., H. Schierbeek, S. R. D. van der Schoor, B. Stoll, D. G. Burrin, P. G. Reeds, and J. B. vanGoudoever. 2005. Threonine utilization is high in the intestine of piglets. Journal of Nutrition, 135: 765-770.
48- Seaborn, C. D., and F. H. Nielsen. 2002. Silicon deprivation decreases collagen formation in wounds and bone, and ornithine transaminase enzyme activity in liver. Biology Trace Elements Research. 89: 251–261.
49- Sell, J. L. 1993. Influence of metabolizable feeding sequence and dietary protein on performance and selected carcass traits of tom turkeys. Poulry Science, 72: 521–534.
50- Shan, A. S., K. G. Sterling, G. M. Pesti, R. I. Bakalli, J. P. Driver, and A. A. Tejedor. 2003. The Influence of Temperature on the Threonine and Tryptophan Requirements of Young Broiler Chicks. Poultry Science, 82: 1154–1162.
51- Sterling, K. G., D. V. Vedenov, G. M. Pesti, and R. I. Bakalli. 2005. Economically optimal dietary crude protein and lysine levels for starting broiler chicks. Poultry Science, 84: 29-36.
52- Tamir, H., and S. Ratner. 1963. Enzymes of arginine metabolism in chicks. Archive for Biochemistry and Biophysics, 102: 249-258.
53- Tan, B., Y. Yin, Z. Liu, H. Xu, X. Kong, R. Huang, W. Tang, and G. Wu. 2009. Dietary L-arginine supplementation increases muscle gain and reduces body fat mass in growing-finishing pigs. Amino Acids, 37:169-175.
54- Trippel, S. B. 1998. Potential role of insulin-like growth factors in fracture healing. Clinical Orthopaedics, 355: S301–S313.
55- Visser, J. J., and K. Hoekman. 1994. Arginine supplementation in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Medical Hypotheses, 43: 339–342.