بررسی اثرات سطوح مختلف پودر دارچین با آنتی‌ بیوتیک و پروبیوتیک بر عملکرد، فراسنجه‌های خونی و پاسخ ایمنی جوجه‌های گوشتی

نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی- تغذیه طیور

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد، گروه علوم دامی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 گروه علوم دامی، دانشکده کشاورزی،دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

چکیده

این آزمایش به منظور بررسی اثرات سطوح مختلف پودر دارچین با آنتی‌بیوتیک ویرجینیامایسین و پروبیوتیک پریمالاک بر سیستم ایمنی و فراسنجه‌های خونی جوجه‌های گوشتی با 384 قطعه جوجه یک‌روزه در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با 8 تیمار، 4 تکرار و 12 قطعه پرنده در هر تکرار به مدت 42 روز انجام گرفت. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل: 1- جیره پایه (تیمار شاهد) 2- جیره پایه + 1‌/0 درصد پودر دارچین 3- جیره پایه + 2/0 درصد پودر دارچین 4- جیره پایه + 3‌/0 درصد پودر دارچین 5- جیره پایه + پریمالاک + 2‌/0 درصد پودر دارچین 6- جیره پایه + ویرجینیامایسین + 2/0درصد پودر دارچین 7- جیره پایه + پریمالاک 8- جیره پایه + ویرجینیامایسین بودند. ویرجینیامایسین در دوره آغازین به میزان 15 گرم در تن و در دوره‌های بعدی به میزان 10 گرم در تن به جیره اضافه شد. هم‌چنین پریمالاک در دوره آغازین به میزان 900 گرم در تن، در دوره رشد 454 گرم در تن و در دوره پایانی 225 گرم در تن به جیره اضافه شد. تیمارهای جیره‌ای در این آزمایش تأثیر معنی‌داری بر صفات عملکرد جوجه‌های گوشتی شامل میزان مصرف خوراک، افزایش وزن روزانه و ضریب تبدیل خوراک نداشتند و فقط در دوره آغازین از نظر مصرف خوراک اختلاف بین تیمارها معنی‌دار بود. برای ارزیابی ایمنی هومورال و سلولی به‌ترتیب از آزمایش SRBC و CBH استفاده شد. در مورد ایمنی هومورال، نتایج آزمایش SRBC نشان داد که در بین ایمنوگلوبولین‌های اندازه‌گیری شده G، M و T تنها ایمنوگلوبولین G در عیار اولیه و ثانویه در پاسخ به آنتی‌ژن SRBC تفاوت معنی‌داری را نشان داد. در عیار ثانویه که پاسخ در برابر آنتی‌ژن سریع‌تر و قوی‌تر می‌باشد استفاده از تیمار 1/0 درصد دارچین باعث افزایش ایمنی پرنده در مقایسه با تیمارهای حاوی آنتی‌بیوتیک و پروبیوتیک شد. در آزمایش ایمنی سلولی در 24 ساعت پس از تزریق محلول فیتوهماگلوتینین در روز 42 تیمار حاوی سطح 2/0 درصد دارچین و پروبیوتیک اختلاف معنی‌داری با سایر تیمارها نشان داد. افزودن پودر دارچین در سطح 2/0 و 1/0 درصد به ترتیب باعث کاهش معنی‌دار غلظت گلوکز و کلسترول سرم خون شد. این مطالعه نشان داد که استفاده از پودر دارچین و پروبیوتیک به عنوان جایگزین‌های آنتی‌بیوتیک در جیره ممکن است سبب بهبود پاسخ‌های ایمنی هومورال و سلولی و کاهش سطوح کلسترول و گلوکز سرم خون جوجه‌های گوشتی گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of Different Levels of Cinnamon Powder, Antibiotic and Probiotic on Performance, Blood Parameters and Immune System in Broiler Chickens

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad ali Behrooz lak 1
  • Ahmad Hassanabadi 2
  • Hasan Nasiri Moghadam 2
  • Hasan Kermanshahi 2
1 Department of Animal Science, Faculty of agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
2 Department of Animal Science, Faculty of agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Dietary supplementation of medicinal plants as antibiotic replacement is a new approach in modern poultry farming systems. In poultry production, the main effects of medicinal plants are focused on the intestinal tract and its microbial flora. One of these medicinal plants is cinnamon that is known with scientific name cinnamon zeylanicum. Cinnamon verum (syn. Cinnamomum zeylanicum) is a native of Sri Lanka and south India, but bark and leaf are widely used as a spice throughout the world. Cinnamaldehyde and eugenol are two very important terpenoids found in cinnamon, which are known as bioactive substances with potential health effects. They have intense antimicrobial, antifungal, and antioxidant properties. Cinnamon constituents possess antioxidant action and may prove beneficial against free radical damage to cell membranes.
Materials and Methods: This study was investigated the comparative effects of different levels of cinnamon powder (CNP), antibiotic (virginiamycin) and probiotic (primalac) on blood parameters and immune system in broiler chicks for 42 days using a completely randomized design. A total of 384, day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly assigned into 8 treatments with 4 replicates and 12 chicks each. The experimental treatments consisting of: Basal diet (BD), BD + 0.1% CNP, BD + 0.2% CNP, BD + 0.3% CNP, BD + primalac, BD + 0.2% CNP + primalac, BD + virginiamycin and BD + 0.2% CNP + virginiamycin. Virginiamycin was supplemented at 15 g/ton to the starter and 10 g/ton to the grower and finisher diets. Also primalac was added at 900 g/ton to the starter, 454 g/ton to the grower and 225 g/ton to the finisher diets. At the end of each phase, the average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily weight gain (ADWG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) for each group of birds were calculated and mortality was daily weighed, recorded and used to correct the FCR. At 42 d of age, one bird from each replicate with average pen weight was selected, blood samples were taken from wing vein and determined triglyceride, total cholesterol, ALT, AST, total protein and glucose in blood serum samples. SRBC (Sheep red blood cell) and CBH (Cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity) test were used to assessment of humoral and cellular immunity, respectively.
Results and Discussion: Apart from feed intake at starter period, dietary treatments had no significant effect on performance characteristics at starter, grower and finisher periods. The humoral immunity results showed that in first and second titer of SRBC test, IgG had lonely significant difference. In second titer of SRBC test, the response against antigen is faster and more powerful. Birds fed BD + 0.1% CNP had high second titer of IgG compared to treatments containing antibiotic and probiotic. Hypersensitivity test showed the treatment BD + 0.2% CNP + probiotic (primalac) increased toe membrane thickness at 24 hours after injection PHA-P solution. As cinnamon has potential broad antimicrobial and antioxidant activities, immune responses were expected to be elevated. It has been proved that herbal extracts increase anti-body titration against SRBC which herbal extracts stimulate immune response by increasing vitamin C and phagocytic cells activity. Immune responses using probiotics, medicines and plant extracts in the diet increases that were consistent with the results obtained in this study. Serum glucose and cholesterol levels were reduced with levels of 0.2% and 0.1% of CNP respectively. Cinnamon zeylanicum inhibits the hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase activity, resulting in lower hepatic cholesterol content and suppresses lipid peroxidation via the enhancement of hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities. It is known that an unidentified factor present in cinnamon as methyl hydroxy chalcone polymers (MHCP). It was reported that MHCP presented in cinnamon increased insulin dependent glucose metabolism roughly 20 fold in vitro. Reduce serum glucose indirectly reduce the production of cholesterol, thereby reducing glucose to pyruvate production and reduced CoA which is a precursor of cholesterol.
Conclusion: This study showed that inclusion of CNP in broiler diets had not remarkable effects on performance, but the use of herbal additives such as cinnamon and probiotics as alternatives to antibiotics into diet may improve humoral and cellular immune responses and decreased serum glucose and cholesterol levels in the broiler chicks, thereby it can be useful meat quality of bird and human health.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cinnamon powder
  • Probiotic
  • Blood parameters
  • Immune system
  • Broiler chicks
1- Al-Kassie, G. A. M. 2009. Influence of two plant extracts derived from thyme and cinnamon on broiler performance. Pakistan Vet. J. 29(4): 169-173.
2- Ashayerizadeh, O., B. Dastar, M. Shams shargh, A. Ashayerizadeh, and M. Mamooee. 2009. Influence of antibiotic, prebiotic and probiotic supplementation to diets on carcass characteristics, hematological indices and internal organ size of young broiler chickens. J. Anim. Vet. Adv. 8:1772- 1776.
3- Aviagen, 2007. Ross 308 broiler nutrition specification. Newbridge, Midlothian, UK.
4- Barreto, M. S. R., J. F. M. Menten, A. M. C. Racanicci, P. W. Z. Pereira, and P. Rizzo. 2008. Plant extracts used as growth promoters in broilers. Rev. Bras. Cienc. Avic. Braz. J. Poult. Sci. 2:109-115.
5- Cheema, M. A., M. A. Quereshi, and G. B. Havestein. 2003. A comparison of the immune response of a 2001 commercial broiler with a 1957 randomberd broiler strain when fed representative 1957 and 2001 broiler diets. Poult. Sci. 82: 1519-1529.
6- Christensen, H. R., H. Frokiaer, and J. J. Pestka. 2002. Lactobacilli differentially modulate expression of cytokines and maturation surface markers in murine dendritic cells. J. Immunol. 168: 171 - 178.
7- Ciftci, M., U. G. Simsek, A. Yuce, O. Yilmaz, and B. Dalkilic. 2010. Effects of dietary antibiotic and Cinnamon oil supplementation on antioxidant enzyme activities, cholesterol levels and fatty acid compositions of serum and meat in broiler chickens. ACTA VET.BRNO. 79: 33-40.
8- Cook, N. C., and S. Samman. 1996. Flavonoidschemistry, metabolism, cardioprotective effects, and dietary sources. J. Nutr. Biochem. 7: 66 - 76.
9- Corrier, D. E. 1990. Comparison of phytohemagglutinin-induced cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions in the interdigital skin of broiler and layer chicks. Avian Dis. 34:369–373.
10- Eltazi, S. M. A. 2014. Effect of using cinnamon powder as natural feed additive on performance and carcass quality of broiler chicks. Int. J. Innov. Agri. Biol. Res. 2 (3):1-8.
11- Faix, S., Z. Faixova, I. Placa, and J. Koppel. 2009. Effect of cinnamomum zeylanicum on antioxidant status in broiler chickens. ACTA VET. BRNO. 78: 411-417.
12- Fuller, R. 1989. Probiotics in man and animal. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 66: 365-378.
13- Gudev, D., S. Popova-Ralcheval, P. Moneval, and M. Ignatova. 2008. Effect of the probiotic “Lactona”on some biological parameters and non specific resistance in neonatal pigs. Biotec. Anim. Husb. 24(1-2): 87-96.
14- Huang, M. K., Y. J. Choi, R. J. Houde, W. Lee, B. H. Lee, and X. Zhao. 2004. Effects of lactobacilli and an acidophilic fungus on the production performance and immune responses in broiler chickens. Poult. Sci. 83: 788 – 795.
15- Hyun, S. L., D. K. Kim, D. M. Bravo, and S. H. Lee. 2010. Effects of dietary plant-derived phytonutrients on the genome-wide profiles and coccidiosis resistance in the broiler chickens. BMC Proceedings 31 May – 2 June, 5 (Suppl 4):S34
16- Kabir, S. M. L., M. M. Rahman, M. B. Rahman, and S. U. Ahmed. 2004. The dynamics of probiotics on growth performance and immune response in broilers. Int. J. Poult. Sci. 3: 361-365.
17- Khan, A., N. A. Bryden, M. M. Polansky, and R. A. Anderson. 1990. Insulin potentiating factor and chromium content of selected foods and spices. Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 24(3): 183-188.
18- Koenen, M. E., J. Kramer, R. Van der hulst, L. Heres, S. H. M. Jeurissenand, and W.J.A. Boersma. 2004. Immunomodulation by probiotic lactobacilli in layer- and meat-type chickens. Br. Poult. Sci. 45: 355 - 366.
19- Koochaksaraie, R. R., M. Irani, and S. Gharavysi. 2011. The effect of cinnamon powder on some blood metabolites in broiler chicks. Braz. J. Poult. Sci. 3 (13): 197-201.
20- Lee, K.W., H. Everts, H.J. Kappert, M. Frehner, R. Losa, and A.C. Beynen. 2003. Effects of dietary essential oil components on growth performance, digestive enzymes and lipid metabolism in female broiler chickens. Brit Poult. Sci. 44: 450–457.
21- Lee, K. W., H. Everts, and A. C. Beynen. 2004. Essential oils in broiler nutrition. Int. J. Poult. Sci. 3: 738-752.
22- Nelson, D. L., and M. M. Cox. 2008. Lehninger principles of biochemistry. ISBN: 071677108X.
23- Mathivanan, R., and K. Kalaiarasi. 2007. Panchagavya and andrographis panculata as alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters on hematological, serum biochemical parameters and immune status of broilers. Poult. Sci. 44: 198 - 204.
24- Mohan, B., R. Kadirvel, A. Natarajan, and M. Bhaskaran.1996. Effect of probiotic supplementation on growth, nitrogen utilisation and serum cholesterol in broilers. Br. Poult. Sci. 37: 395-401.
25- Najafi, P., and M. Torki. 2010. Performance, blood metabolites and immunocompetaence of broiler chicks fed diets included essential oils of medicinal herbs. J. Anim. Vet. Adv. 9(7): 1164-1168.
26- NRC. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry. 9th rev. ed. Natl. Acad. Press, Washington, DC.
27- Panda, A. K., M. R. Reddy, S. V. Ramarao, M. V. L. N. Raju, and N. K. Praharaj. 2000. Growth, carcass characteristics, immunocompetence and response to Escherichia coli of broilers fed diets with various levels of probiotic. Archive für Geflügelkunde. 64: 152-156.
28- Park, S. O., C. M. Ryo, B. S. Park and J. Hwangbo. 2013. The meat quality and growth performance in broiler chickens fed diet with cinnamon powder. J. of environment. biol. 34: 127-133.
29- Sadeghi, G. H., A. Karimi, T. Azizi, and A. Daneshmand. 2012. Effects of cinnamon, thyme and turmeric infusions on the performance and immune response in of 1- to 21-day-old male broilers. Braz. J. Poult. Sci. 1: 15-20.
30- SAS Institute. 2008. SAS Stat User’s Guide. Version 9.2 ed. SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC.
31- Taback, M., R. Armon, and I. Neeman. 1999. Cinnamon extracts inhibitory effect on helicobacter pylori. J. Ethnophamacol. 67: 269-277.
32- Taherpour, R., H. Moravej, M. Shivazad, M. Adibmoradi, and B. Yakhchali. 2009. Effects of dietary probiotic, prebiotic and butyric acid glycerides on performance and serum composition in broiler chickens. Afr. J. Biotech. 8: 2329-2334.
33- Toghyani, M., M. Toghyani, A. Gheisari, G. Ghalamkari, and S. Eghbalsaied. 2010. Evaluation of cinnamon and garlic as antibiotic growth promoter substitutions on performance, immune response, serum biochemical and haematological parameters in broiler chicks. Livestock Sience. 138: 167-173.
34- Van Furt, R. 1982. Current view on the mononuclear phagocyte system. Immunobiology. 161: 178–185.
35- Van Heugten, E., and J.W. Spears. 1997. Immune response and growth of stressed weaning pigs fed diets supplemented with organic or inorganic forms of chromium. J. Anim. Sci. 75, 409–416.
36- Zulkifli, I., N. Abdullah, N. M. Azrin, and Y. W. Ho. 2000. Growth performance and immune response of two commercial broiler strains fed diets containing Lactobacillus cultures and oxytetracycline under heat stress conditions. Br. Poult. Sci. 41: 593-597.