اثر مصرف کاکوتی کوهی (Ziziphora clinopodioides) بر عملکرد، قابلیت هضم، فراسنجه‌های خونی و قوام مدفوع در بزغاله‌های شیرخوار نژاد سیستانی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه تغذیه دام و طیور، دانشکده علوم دامی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، گرگان، ایران

2 گروه تغذیه دام و طیور، دانشکده علوم دامی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، گرگان

چکیده

کاکوتی بدلیل غنـی بودن از فلاوونوئیدها و کاروتنوئیدها سبب بهبود سلامت و عملکرد دام می­شود. این آزمایش به­منظور بررسی تأثیر سطوح مختلف کاکوتی بر عملکرد، قابلیت هضم ماده خشک، فراسنجه­های خونی و قوام مدفوع در بزغاله­های شیرخوار نژاد سیستانی انجام شد. 18 رأس بزغاله شیرخوار یک تا دو ماهه با متوسط وزن 7/2±13 کیلوگرم در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی به سه تیمار و شش تکرار در یک دوره 70 روزه تقسیم شدند. گروه­های آزمایشی شامل شاهد (بدون افزودن کاکوتی به شیر)، تیمار دریافت کننده 5/2 گرم کاکوتی و تیمار دریافت کننده 5 گرم کاکوتی در روز بودند.  جهت بررسـی تغییرات وزن، بزغاله­ها یک روز در هر هفته توزین شدند. اندازه­گیری مصرف ماده­ خشک و ثبت امتیاز مدفوع به­ صورت روزانه انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد که بین تیمارها اختلاف معنی‌داری در مصرف روزانه جیره آغازین وجود نداشت. قابلیت هضم ماده خشک در بزغاله‌های تغذیه شده با سطوح مختلف پودر کاکوتی نسبت به تیمار شاهد افزایش معنی­دار داشت. نمره قوام مدفوع با افزایش سطح گیاه کاکوتی در شیر، به­ طورمعنی‌داری کاهش یافت. روزهای ابتلا به اسهال اختلاف آماری نداشت. ﺗﯿﻤﺎرﻫﺎی آزﻣﺎﯾﺸﯽ ﺑﺮ ﻫـﯿﭻﯾـﮏ از ﻓﺮاﺳﻨﺠﻪﻫﺎی خون و سیستم ایمنی ﺗأﺛﯿﺮ ﻣﻌﻨـﯽداری ﻧداشت. ﻧﺘـﺎﯾﺞ اﯾـﻦ ﭘﮋوﻫﺶ ﻧﺸﺎن داد ﮐﻪ اﻓﺰودن ﮔﯿﺎه کاکوتی ﺑﻪ ﺷﯿﺮ در بزغاﻟﻪﻫﺎی ﺷﯿﺮﺧﻮار، ﺑﺮ جیره­ی آغازین مصرفی، قابلیت هضم و ﻗﻮام ﻣﺪﻓﻮع اﺛﺮ ﻣﺜﺒﺖ دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of adding different levels Ziziphora tenuior on performance, blood parameters and fecal score of Sistani neonatal kids

نویسندگان [English]

  • Abdolhakim Toghdory 1
  • Mohammad Asadi 2
  • Taghi Ghoorchi 1
1 Department of Animal and Poultry nutrition, Animal Science Faculty, Gorgan University of Agricultural Science and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran.
2 Department of Animal and Poultry nutrition, Animal Science Faculty, Gorgan University of Agricultural Science and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Introduction Animal feed additives are used worldwide for many different reasons. Breeding management of sucking animals, including proper nutrition and prevention of common diseases up to the age of weaning, has an effective role in the economic value of the livestock industry.
Some help to cover the needs of essential nutrients and others to increase growth performance, feed intake and therefore optimize feed utilization. The health status of animals with a high growth performance is a predominant argument in the choice of feed additives. Herbs, spices and their extracts (botanicals) have a wide range of activities. They can stimulate feed intake and endogenous secretions or have antimicrobial, coccidiostatic or anthelmintic activity. Among the advantages of using medicinal plants are simple use, no adverse effects in most of them on animal performance, no harmful residues in livestock and poultry products and less cost than antibiotics.The aim of the present investigation was to study of effect of Ziziphora tenuior on the performance of suckling kids, dry matter digestibility, blood parameters and the effect on the incidence of diarrhea.
Materials and Methods In order to investigate the effect of adding different levels of Ziziphora tenuior on performance, blood parameters and fecal score of Sistani infants from 18 lambs aged 1 to 2 months with an average weight of 13 2. 2.7 kg in a completely randomized design with three treatments and 6 replications Were. Treatments included:  control (milk without additive), 2) milk contains 2.5 g powder Ziziphora tenuior, 3) milk contains 5 g powder Ziziphora tenuior. The duration of the experiment was 70 days. The diets used in this experiment were prepared according to the tables of the National Association of Sheep Research (NRC) and were given to the goats in the morning (8 o'clock) and in the evening (16 o'clock) as an appetite suppressant. Daily feed was provided to the animals in a completely mixed form. The Ziziphora tenuior plant used was dried in an oven, ground and added to milk as a powder, and milk was given to the goats twice a day (10% of body weight) by pacifiers. Kids were weighed one day per week to evaluate weight changes. Dry matter intake was measured and fecal score was recorded daily. Feces samples were collected for digestibility in the final week for 5 days. Goat feces were evaluated daily. Feces scores were determined based on 1-firm and consistent, 2-soft and loose, 3-loose and watery, 4-watery with some blood and 5-watery with blood and mucus. Blood sampling was performed on day 63 so that all goats were sampled intravenously before the morning meal and with dietary restriction for 12 to 14 hours and the blood was taken in two separate tubes, one containing heparin to obtain plasma and the other without heparin. The concentrations of triglycerides, cholesterol, glucose, blood urea nitrogen, albumin and total protein were also determined by spectrophotometer. About 3 ml of blood was transferred to tubes containing EDTA solution and hematological parameters including white blood cells, neutrophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes and monocytes were measured and red blood cells, hemoglobin, hemoglobin, hemoglobin, hematogram. The mean concentration of cellular hemoglobin was also counted and calculated.
Results and Discussion  The dry matter, crude protein and ether extracts of Ziziphora tenuior were 87.91, 7.91 and 3.21 percent, respectively. Based on the obtained results, adding of different levels Ziziphora tenuior to milk. Dry matter digestibility in two leves 2.5 and 5 grams significantly increase compared to control. Daily gain, feed conversion ratio, blood parameter and immune respones were not affected by treatment trials. Fecal score significantly decreased between treatment level 5g and control. There were no significant differences between treatments for blood parameter. Ziziphora tenuior has appetizing, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties due to the presence of linalool and stimulates the digestive process Can increase dietary intake and weight and improve feed conversion ratio.The result showed that adding herbal to milk in neonatal calves have positive effect because of affecting on starter intake, dry matter digestibility and fecal consistency score.
Conclusion This study showed that the inclusion of Ziziphora tenuior kids diet increase dry matter intake, Improved the  fecal score and incidence of diarrhea. Therefore, it is recommended to use this additive plant in milk or starter diet of suckling animals.
 
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Blood parameters
  • Digestibility
  • Fecal score
  • Neonatal kids
  • Ziziphora tenuior
  1. Ababakri, R., A. Riasi, M. H. Fath., H. Naeemipoor, and S. Khorsandi. 2012. The effect of spearmint sativum essence added to starter diet on ruminal fermentation, weaning age and performance of Holstein calves. Iranian Journal of Animal Science Research, 22(4): 57- 68. (In Persian).
  2. Abaza, I. M., M. A. Shehata, M. H. Shoieb, and I. I. Hassan. 2008. Evaluation of some natural Feed addetive in growing chicks’ diets. Journal of Poultry Science, 7(9): 872-879.
  3. AOAC. 2000. Official methods of analysis, 17 thed association of official analytical chemists. Washington, DC.
  4. Asadi, M., A. Toghdory, and T. Ghoorchi. 2018. Effect of Oral Administration and Injection of Selenium and Vitamin E on Performance, Blood Metabolites and Digestibility of Nutrients in Suckling Dalagh Lambs. Research on Animal Production, 9(20): 79-87. (In Persian).
  5. Benchaar, C., H. V. Petit, R. Berthiaume, D. R. Ouellet, J. Chiquette, and P. Y. Chouinard. 2007. Effects of essential oils on digestion, ruminal fermentation, rumen microbial populations, milk production, and milk composition in dairy cows fed alfalfa silage or corn silage. Journal of Dairy Science, 90(2): 886- 897.
  6. Burdock, G.A, and Carabin, I.G. 2009. Safety assessment of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) essential oil as a food ingredient. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 47(1): 22-34.
  7. Calsamigilia, S., M. Busquet, P. W. Cardozo, L. Castillejos, and A. Ferret. 2007. Invited review: Essential oil as modifiers of rumen microbial fermentation. Journal of Dairy Science, 90(6): 2580-2595.
  8. Cardozo, P. W., S. Calsamiglia, A. Ferret, and C. Kamel. 2004. Effect of natural plant extracts on ruminal protein degradation and fermentation profiles in continuous culture. Journal of Animal Science, 82(11): 3230-3236.
  9. Chaves, A. V., K. Sanford, L. L. Gibson, T. A. McAllister, and C. Benchaar. 2008. Effect of carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde on intake, rumen fermentation, growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing lambs. Journal of Animal Feed Science and Technology, 145(1-4): 396- 408.
  10. Chen, G.J., S.D. Song, B.X. Wang, Z.F. Zhang, Z.L. Peng, C.H. Guo, J.C. Zhong, and Y. Wang. 2015. Effects of forage: concentrate ratio on growth performance, rumi-nal fermentation and blood metabolites in housing-feeding Yaks.  Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 28(12): 1736-1741.
  11. Frankic, T., M. Voijc, J. Salobir, and V. Rezar. 2009. Use of herbs and spices and their extracts in animal nutrition.Acta agriculturae Slovenica. 94(2): 95-102.
  12. Ghahhari, N., T. Ghoorchi, and S. A. Vakili. 2015. Effect of adding herbs (Ziziphora clinopodioides, Mentha spicata and Mentha pulegium) in milk on performance, blood metabolites and fecal microbial population on Holstein calves. Iranian Journal of Animal Science Research, 8(1): 57-71. (In Persian).
  13. Ghosh, S., R.K. Mehla, S.K. Sirohi, and S.K. Tomar. 2011. Performance of crossbred calves with dietary supplementation of garlic extract. Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 95(4): 449-455.
  14. Heinrichs, A. J., C. M. Jones, J. A. Elizonda-Salazar, and S. J. Terrill. 2009. Effects of a prebiotic supplement on health of neonatal dairy calves. Journal of Livestock Science and Technologies, 125(2-3): 149- 154.
  15. Hosoda, K., K. Kuramoto, B. Eruden, T. Nishida, and S. Shioya. 2006. The Effects of Three Herbs as Feed Supplements on Blood Metabolites, Hormones, Antioxidant Activity, IgG Concentration, and Ruminal Fermentation in Holstein Steers. Journal of Animal Science, 19(1): 35- 41.
  16. Hosoda, K., T. Nishida, W. Y. Park, and B. Eruden. 2005. Influence of Mentha×piperita   (peppermint) supplementation on nutrient digestibility and energy metabolism in lactating dairy cows.  Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 18(12): 1721- 1726.
  17. Idris, H.M., E.L. Bagir, M. Nabeila, and O.A. Al-Tayib. 2014. Effect of commercial oil of Nigella sativa L. seeds on lipids parameters and weight in sheep.  The Pharma Innovation International Journal, 3(7): 87-91.
  18. Kar, D. M., B. K. Nanda, D. Pradhan, S. K. Sahu, and G. K. Dash. 2004. Analgesic and antipyretic activity of fruits of Martynia annuaLinn. Hamdard Medicus, 47(1): 32-35.
  19. Khan, M. A., H. J. Lee, H.S. Lee, H. S. Kim, S. B. Kim, K. S. Ki, S. J. Park, J. K. Ha, and Y. J. Choi. 2007. Starch source evaluation in calf starter: feed consumption, body weight gain, structural growth, and blood metabolites in Holstein calves. Journal of Dairy Science, 90(11): 5259- 5268.
  20. Khosravi Manesh, M. 2011. Evaluation of two medicinal plants extract diets of Japanese quails. Annals of Biological Research. 2(6): 657-661.
  21. Kung L., P. Williams, R. J. Schmidt, and W. Hu. 2008. A Blend of Essential Plant Oils Used as an Additive to Alter Silage Fermentation or Used as a Feed Additive for Lactating Dairy Cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 91(12): 4793- 4800.
  22. Lee, S. J., D. H. Kim, S.K. Le Luo Guan, K.W. Cho, and S.S. Lee. 2015. Effect of Medicinal Plant By-products Supplementation to Total Mixed Ration on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Economic Efficacy in the Late Fattening Period of Hanwoo Steers Asian Australas. Journal of Animal Science, 28(12):1729-1735
  23. Logan, E. F., and R. J. Bywater. 2002: The site and characteristics of intestinal water and electrolyte loss in Escherichia coli Induced diarrhea in calves. Journal of Comparative Pathology, 84(4): 599-610.
  24. Mahboubi, M., and G. Haghi. 2008. Antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of Mentha pulegium L. Essential oil. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 119(2): 325- 327.
  25. Mohammed, S.F., A.A. Saeed, and O.S. Al-Jubori. 2018. Effect of daily supplement of coriander seeds powder on weight gain, rumen fermentation, digestion and some blood characteristics of Awassi ewes Journal of Research in Ecology, 6(2): 1762-1770
  26. National Research Council (NRC). 2007. Nutrient Requirements of Small Ruminants. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
  27. Noori, N., N. Dehrekni, B. Akhunzadeh, A. Misaghi, A. Dabaghi Moghadam, R. YahyaRayat, and S. Ghanbari. 2012. The antimicrobial effect of thyme essential oil on Ecoli o157: H7 in beef calves during storage at refrigerator temperatures in order to replace chemical preservatives and health care consumers. Journal of Army University of Medical Sciences, Iran, 10: 192-197.
  28. Normand, V., S. Avison, and A. Parker. 2004. Modeling the kinetics of flavour release during drinking. Journal of Chemical Senses, 29(3):235–245.
  29. Reuter, J., Huyke, C., Casetti, F, and Frank, U. 2008. Anti-inflammatory potential of a lipolotion containing coriander oil in the ultraviolet erythema test. Journal of dermatology, 6(10): 847-51.
  30. Reuter, J., Huyke, C., Casetti, F, and U, Frank. 2008. Anti-inflammatory potential of a lipolotion containing coriander oil in the ultraviolet erythema test. Journal of dermatology, 6(10): 847-51.
  31. Safid Kan, F., L. Sadighzadeh, and M. Taymori. 2006. The study of antimicrobial effects of essential oils of satureia hortensis. Journal of Medical Plants. 23: 174-182.
  32. Salamat, T. Ghorchi, F. Ghanbari, and O. Ashayerizadeh. 2016. Determination of degradability and the effect of Ziziphora tenuiorL.on dry matter digestibility rumen microbial population and blood parameters of Dalaq sheep. Journal of Animal and Poultry Research ((In Persian).) 4(3). 23-34.
  33. Salamat, A. 2014. The effect Ziziphora tenuior of ration dry matter digestibility, microbial population in the rumen and blood parameters Dalaq sheep. Thesis MSC. Gorgan University of Agricultural Science and Natural Resources. (In Persian), 4(3): 23-34.
  34. Samman, S., N.C.Cook. 1996. Flavonoids chemistry, metabolism, cardio protective effects and dietary sources. Journal of nutritional biochemistry, 7(2):66-76
  35. SAS. 2003. SAS User’s Guide Statistics. Version 9.1.3 Edition. SAS Inst., Inc., Cary NC.
  36. Skandamis, P.N., and G.J.E. Nychas. 2001. Effect of oregano essential oil on microbiologic al and physico-chemical attributes of minced meat stored in air and modified atmos pheres. Journal of Applied Microbiology. 91(6):1011 -1022.
  37. Soltan, M. A. 2009. Effect of essential oils supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, health condition of Holstein male calves during pre- and post- weaning periods. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 8(5): 642- 652.
  38. Tassoul, M. D., and R. D. Shaver. 2009. Effect of a mixture of supplemental dietary plant essential oils on performance of periparturient and early lactation dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 92: 1734- 1740.
  39. Teixeira, B., A. Marques, C. Ramos, I. Batista, C. Serrano, O. Matos, N. R. Neng, J. M. F. Nogueira, Alexandre Saraiva,  and M. Leonor Nunes. 2012. European pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium) from Portugal: Chemical composition of essential oil and antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of extracts and essential oil.  Journal of Industrial Crops and Products, 36(1): 81-87.
  40. Thomas, L. C., T. C. Wright, A. Formusiak, J. P. Cant, and V. R. Osborne. 2007. Use of flavored drinking water in calves and lactating dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science, 90(8): 3831- 3837.
  41. Van Soest, P.J., J.B. Robertson, and B.A. Lewis. 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutraldetergent fiber, and nonstarchpolysaccharides (NSP) in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science. 74(10): 3583–3597.
  42. Yang, Z., B. N. Ametaj, C. Benchaar, M. L. He, and K.A. Beauchemin. 2009. Cinnamaldehyde in feedlot cattle diets: Intake, growth performance, carcass characteristics, and blood metabolites. Journal of Animal Science, 88(3):1082-1092.
CAPTCHA Image