1- Alizadeh Sadr, M. A., F. Shariatmadari, and M. A. Karimi. 2010. The effect of eٍssential oil, prebiotic, probiotic and antibiotic on performance and immune response of broilers chickens. Veterinary Journal, (Pajouhesh & Sazandegi) 87:10-17. (In Persian).
2- Allan, W. H., and R. E. Gough. 1974. A standard haemagglutination inhibition test for Newcastle disease 1. Comparison of macro and micro method. Veterinary Record, 95:120-123.
3- AOAC. 2000. Official Methods of Analysis. 15th Edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemist, Virgina, USA.
4- Arora, R., D. Gupta, R. Chawla, R. Sagar, A. Sharma, R. Kumar, J. Prasad, S. Singh, N. Samanta, and R. K. Sharma. 2005. Radioprotection by plant products: present status and future prospect. Phytotherapy Research, 19:1-22.
5- Aviagen. 2007. Ross Broiler Management Manual, Nutrition Specification. Aviagen Ltd., Newbridge, Midlothian EH28 8SZ, Scotland, UK.
6- Awad, W. A., K. Ghareeb, and J. Bohm. 2008. Intestinal structure and function of broiler chickens on diets supplemented with a synbiotic containing Enterococcus faecium and oligosaccharides. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 9:2205–2216.
7- Awad, W. A., K. Ghareeb, S. Abdel-Raheem, and J. Bohm. 2009. Effects of dietary inclusion of probiotic and synbiotic on growth performance, organ weights, and intestinal histomorphology of broiler chickens. Poultry Science, 88:49–55.
8- Azadmehr, A., and A. Afshari. 2009. Suppression of nitric oxide production in activated murine peritoneal macrophages in vitro and ex vivo by Scrophularia striata ethanolic extract. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 124:166-169.
9- Azadmehr, A., K. Alizadeh Oghyanous, R. Hajiaghaee, Z. Amirghofran, and M. Azadbakht. 2013. Antioxidant and neuroprotective effects of Scrophularia striata extract against oxidative stress-induced neurotoxicity. Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, 33:1135–1141.
10- Bahrami, A. M. and A. Valadi. 2010. Effects of Scrophularia striata ethanolic leaves extracts on Staphylococcus aureus. International Journal of Pharmacology, 6:431-434.
11- Barbosa Fascina, V., J. R. Sartori, E. Gonzales, F. Barros de Carvalho, I. M. G. Pereira de Souza, G. Polycarpo, A. C. Stradiotti, and V. C. Pelicia. 2012. Phytogenic additives and organic acids in broiler chicken diets. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, 41:2189-2197.
12- Bas, E., M. C. Recio, M. Abdallah, S. Mañez, R. M. Giner, M. Cerda-Nicolas, and J. L. Rios. 2007. Inhibition of the pro-inflammatory mediators' production and anti-inflammatory effect of the iridoid scrovalentinoside. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 110:419-427.
13- Bhutada, P., Y. Mundhada, K. Bansod, A. Ubgade, M. Quazi, S. Umathe, and D. Mundhada. 2010. Reversal by quercetin of corticotrophin releasing factor induced anxiety- and depression-like effect in mice. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 16:955-960.
14- Castanon, J. I. R. 2007. History of the use of antibiotic as growth promoters in European poultry feeds. Poultry Science, 86:2466–2471.
15- Chichlowski, M., J. Croom, B. W. McBride, G. Davis, L. Daniel, and M. Koci. 2007. Direct-fed microbial and salinomycin modulate whole body and intestinal oxygen consumption and intestinal enterocytes cytokine production in the broiler chick. International Journal of Poultry Science, 86:1100-1106.
16- Craig, W. J. 1999. Health-promoting properties of common herbs. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 70:491s-499s.
17- Dalimi, A., M. Arbabi, and R. Naserifar. 2013. The effect of aqueous extraction of Artemisia sieberi Besser and Scrophularia striata Boiss. On Leishmania major under in vitro conditions. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 29(1):237-246. (In Persian).
18- Danaee Pataveh, M. 1391.The effect of different levels of Ferulago angulata on blood parameters, liver enzymes, meat oxidative stability and performance of broiler. MSc Thesis. Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences & Natural Resources. (In Persian).
19- Davila, S. G., J. L. Campo, M. G. Gil, M. T. Prieto, and O. Torres. 2011. Effects of auditory and physical enrichment on 3 measurements of fear and stress (tonic immobility duration, heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, and fluctuating asymmetry) in several breeds of layer chicks. Poultry Science, 90:2459–2466.
20- Diaz, A. M., M. J. Abad, L. Fernandez, A. M. Silvan, J. De Santos, and P. Bermejo, 2004. Phenylpropanoid glycosides from Scrophularia scorodonia: In vitro anti-inflammatory activity. Life Science, 74:2515-2526.
21- Falaki, M., M. Shams shargh, B. Dastar, and S. Zrehdaran. 2010. Effects of different leves of probiotic and prebiotic on performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 9:2390-2395.
22- Gunal, M., G. Yayli, O. Kaya, N. Karhan, and O. Sulak. 2006. The effects of antibiotic growth promoter, probiotic or organic acid supplementation on performance, intestinal microflora and tissue of broilers. International Journal of Poultry Science, 5:149-155.
23- Hamann, L., V. El-Samalouti, A. J. Ulmer, H. D. Flad, and E. T. Rietschel. 1998. Components of gut bacteria as immunomodulators. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 41:141-154.
24- Hassanpour, H., A. K. Zamani Moghaddam, M. Khosravi, and M. Mayahi. 2013. Effects of synbiotic on the intestinal morphology and humoral immune response in broiler chickens. Livestock Science, 153: 116–122.
25- Houshmand, M., K. Azhar, I. Zulkifli, M. H. Bejo, A. Meimandipour, and A. Kamyab. 2011. Effects of non-antibiotic feed additives on performance, tibial dyschondroplasia incidence and tibia characteristics of broilers fed low-calcium diets. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 95:351-358.
26- Jazila, E. M., M. Driss, and A. Hamid. 2007. Antimicrobal activaty of Elttaria Cardamomum: Toxicity, biochemical and histological studies. Food Chemistry, 104:1560-1568.
27- Khodambashi Emami, N., A. Samie, H. R. Rahmani, and C. A. Ruiz-Feria. 2012. The effect of peppermint essential oil and fructooligosaccharides, as alternatives to virginiamycin, on growth performance, digestibility, gut morphology and immune response of male broilers. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 175:57–64.
28- Koenen, M. E., J. Karmer, R. Vander Hulst, L. Heres, S. H. Jeurissen, and W. J. Boersma. 2004. Immunomodulation by probiotic lactobacilli in layer and meat-type chickens. British Poultry Science, 45:355-366.
29- Lee, D., S. Lyu, R. Wang, C. Weng, and B. Chen. 2011. Exhibit differential functions of various antibiotic growth porometers in broiler growth immuneresponse and gastrointestianal physiology. International Journal of Poultry Science, 10:216-220.
30- Lewis, W. H., and M. P. Elvin-Lewis. 1995. Medicinal plants as sources of new therapeutics. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 82:16-24.
31- Lucas, A. M., and C. Jamroz. 1961. Atlas of avian hematology. Agriculture Monograph 25, USDA, Washington, DC.
32- Mokhtari, R., A. R. Yazdani, M. Rezaee, and B. Ghorbani. 2009. The effect of synbiotics and phytobiotic on broiler blood parameters. Pages 142-145 in Proceedings of 4th Animal science congress. Hamilton, New Zealand.
33- Mosaddegh, R., S. Salari, M. Sari, T. Mohammadabadi, and M. Taghizadeh. 2013. Comparison between effects of addition of Salvia mirzayanii essence with virginiamycin on performance, carcass characteristics, blood factors and some immune parameters of broiler chickens. Iranian Journal of Animal Science Research, 5(1): 20-28. (In Persian).
34- Mozafarian, V. 1996. Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants. Tehran: Farhang Maaser Publications. 740 Pages. (In Persian).
35- Nobakht, A., M.R. Rahimzadeh, and A.R. Safamehr. 2013. Effects of different levels of mixed medicinal plants of Urtica dioica L., Mentha pulegium L. and Ziziphora tenuior L. on performance, carcass traits, hematological and blood biochemical parameters of broilers. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 29(1):215-224. (In Persian).
36- Patterson, J. A., and K. M. Burkholder. 2003. Application of prebiotics and probiotics in poultry production. Poultry Science, 82:627-631.
37- Platel, K., and K. Srinivasan. 2003. Digestive stimulant action of spices: Amyth or reality? Indian Journal of Medical Research, 119:167–179.
38- Ramarao, S.V., M. R. Reddy, M. V. L. N. Raju, and A. K. Panda. 2004. Growth, nutrient utilization and immunecompetence in broiler chicken fed probiotic, gut acidifier and antibacterial compounds. Indian Journal of Poultry Science, 39:125-130.
39- Rotelli, A. E., C. F. Aguilar, and L. E. Pelzer. 2009. Structural basis of the anti-inXammatory activity of quercetin: inhibition of the 5-Hydroxytryptamine Type 2 Receptor. European Biophysics Journal, 38:865–871.
40- Safamehr, A., M. Feizi, and A. Nobakht. 2012. The effects of the herb chicory on performance and biochemical parameters in broilers. Animal Science and Research Journal, 10:19-29. (In Persian).
41- Safavi, F., H. Meighani, P. Ebrahimi, and S. Hafez. 2012. Antioxidant and antibacterial activity of Scrophularia striata. Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences, 7: S852.
42- Safavi, F., P. Ebrahimi, and H. Mighani. 2013. In vitro anti-bacterial activity of root and aerial parts of Scrophularia striata bioss on Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. Armaghane-danesh, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences Journal, 18(8): 603-614. (In Persian).
43- Safavi, F., P. Ebrahimi, and H. Mighani. 2013. In vitro anti-bacterial activity of root and aerial parts of Scrophularia striata bioss on Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. Armaghane-danesh, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences Journal, 18(8): 603-614. (In Persian).
44- Sarica, S., A. Ciftci, E. Demir, K. Kilinc, and Y. Yildirim. 2005. Use of antibiotic growth promoter and two herbal natural feed additives with and without exogenous enzymes in wheat based broiler diets. South African Journal of Animal Science, 35:61-72.
45- SAS Institute. 2001. SAS User’s Guide: Statistics. Version 8.SAS Institute Inc., Cary, North Carolina.
46- Scott, D. F., and P. D. Michael. 1987. Subtherapeutic levels of antibiotics in poultry feeds and their effects on weight gain, feed efficiency, and bacterial cholyltaurine hydrolase activity. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 53:331-336.
47- Sharifi, S. D., S. H. Khorsandi, A. A. Khadem, A. Salehi, and H. Moslehi. 2013. The effect of four medicinal plants on the performance, blood biochemical traits and ilealmicroflora of broiler chicks. Veterinary Archives, 83:69-80.
48- Sims, M., K. Dawson, K. Newman, P. Spring, and D. Hoogell. 2004. Effects of dietary mannan oligosaccharide, bacitracin methylen di salicylate, or both on the live performance and intestinal microbiology of turkeys. Poultry Science, 83:1148-1154.
49- Singh, M., S. Chauhan, and P. Kumar. 2008. Effect of supplementation of diets with BMD and Virginiamycin on the growth performance, carcass characteristics and bacterial population in broiler chickens. Veterinary World, 1:141-143.
50- Slizewska, K., A. Nowak, Z. Libudzisz, and J. Blasiak. 2010. Probiotic preparation reduces the fecal water genotoxicity in chickens fed with aflatoxin B1 contaminated fodder. Research in Veterinary Science, 89:391–395.
51- Teymouri Zadeh, Z., SH. Rahimi, M.A. Karimi Torshizi, and R. Omidbaigi. 2009. The effects of Thymus vulgaris L., Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench., Allium sativum L. extracts and virginiamycin antibiotic on intestinal microflora population and immune system in broilers. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 25(1):39-48. (In Persian).