##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

عباسعلی ناصریان رضا ولی زاده محمد رضا نصیری

چکیده

تعداد بیست و هشت رأس بره ماده بلوچی با میانگین سن 3/2 ± 9/14 هفته و وزن 6/4 ± 3/26 کیلوگرم از جیره‌های با یا بدون پیه، بر پایه دانه ذرت یا جو، در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی به روش فاکتوریل 2×2 به مدت 9 هفته تغذیه شدند. مصرف جیره‌های آزمایشی اثری بر میانگین خوراک مصرفی بره‌ها نداشت، اگرچه افزایش وزن روزانه و بازدهی خوراک در هفته‌های 4 تا 8، تحت تأثیر اثر تداخل چربی × غله قرار گرفت و در تیمار لیپوژنیک-ذرت بالاترین مقدار بود. افزودن پیه به جیره، به ترتیب سبب افزایش و کاهش غلظت کلسترول و گلوکز سرم بره‌ها در طول دوره آزمایش شد. درحالی‌که، غلظت انسولین و نسبت گلوکز: انسولین، تحت تأثیر اثر غله قرار گرفته، در تیمارهای جو در مقایسه با ذرت، به ترتیب افزایش و کاهش یافت. در بره‌های تغذیه شده با جیره‌های لیپوژنیک در مقایسه با جیره‌های گلوکوژنیک، غلظت پایه گلوکز کاهش و غلظت پایه کلسترول و آسپارتات آمینوترانسفراز افزایش یافت. ازطرفی، غلظت پایه اسیدهای چرب استریفیه نشده سرم و شاخص کمی حساسیت انسولینی تحت تأثیر اثر تداخل چربی × غله قرار گرفته و شاخص حساسیت انسولینی به طور معنی‌دار با بازدهی خوراک همبستگی مثبت نشان داد. به نظر می رسد غلظت چربی و کمیت و ماهیت منبع نشاسته‌ای جیره، عواملی هستند که می‌توانند بر فراسنجه‌های حساسیت انسولینی نشخوارکنندگان اثرگذار باشند. همچنین، به نظر می‌رسد جیره‌هایی که نسبت مطلوبی از چربی و نشاسته را فراهم کنند، بتوانند سبب بهبود بازدهی و وضعیت انرژی حیوان شوند.

جزئیات مقاله

مراجع
1- AFRC. 1993. Energy and protein requirements of ruminants. An advisory manual prepared by the AFRC Technical Committee on Responses to Nutrients. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
2- Allen, M. S. 2000. Effects of diet on short–term regulation of feed intake by lactating dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science, 83: 1598–1624.
3- AOAC. 1990. Official Methods of Analysis. 15th ed. AOAC International, Gaithersburg, MD, USA.
4- Bergman, E. N., S. S. Reulein, and R. E. Corlett. 1989. Effects of obesity on insulin sensitivity and responsiveness in sheep. American Journal of Physiology, 257: 772-781.
5- Bossaert, P., J. L. Leroy., S. De Campeneere., S. De Vliegher, and G. Opsomer. 2009. Differences in the glucose-induced insulin response and the peripheral insulin responsiveness between neonatal calves of the Belgian Blue, Holstein-Friesian, and East Flemish breeds. Journal of Dairy Science, 92: 4404–4411.
6- Bradford, B. J, and M. S. Allen. 2007. Depression in feed intake by a highly fermentable diet is related to plasma insulin concentration and insulin response to glucose infusion. Journal of Dairy Science, 90: 3838–3845.
7- Chun, M. R., Y. J. Lee., K. H. Kim., Y. W. Kim., S. Y. Park., K. M. Lee., J. Y. Kim, and Y. K. Park. 2010. Differential effects of high-carbohydrate and high-fat diet composition on muscle insulin resistance in rats. Journal of Korean Medical Science, 25: 1053-1059.
8- Correa, M. T., C. R. Curtis., H. N. Erb., J. M. Scarlett, and R. D. Smith. 1990. An ecological analysis of risk factors for postpartum disorders of Holstein-Friesian cows from thirty-two New York farms. Journal of Dairy Science, 73(6): 1515–1524.
9- Debras, E., J. Grizard., E. Aina., S. Tesseraud., C. Champredon, and M. Arnal. 1989. Insulin sensitivity and responsiveness during lactation and dry period in goats. American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism, 256: E295–E302.
10- DeVisser, H., P. L. Van Der Togt, and S. Tamminga. 1990. Structural and non-structural carbohydrates in concentrate supplements of silage based dairy cow rations: 1. Feed intake and milk production. Netherlands Journal of Agricultural Science, 38: 487-498
11- Duhlmeier, R., A. Hacker., A. Widdel., W. Von Engelhardt, and H. P. Sallmann. 2005. Mechanisms of insulin-dependent glucose transport into porcine and bovine skeletal muscle. American journal of physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 289: R187–R197.
12- Garnsworthy, P. C., A. Lock., G. E. Mann, and K. D. Sinclair. 2008. Nutrition, metabolism, and fertility in dairy cows: 1. Dietary energy source and ovarian function. Journal of Dairy Science, 91: 3814–3823.
13- Garnsworthy, P. C., J. G. Gong., D. G. Armstrong., G. E. Mann., K. D. Sinclair, and R. Webb. 2009. Effect of site of starch digestion on metabolic hormones and ovarian function in dairy cows. Livestock Science, 125: 161–168.
14- Grummer, R. R. 1993. Etiology of lipid-related metabolic disorders in periparturient dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 76: 3882–3896.
15- Harmon. D. L, and K. R. McLeod. 2001. Glucose uptake and regulation by intestinal tissues: implications and whole-body energetic. Journal of Animal Science, 79: E59-E72.
16- Hayirli, A. 2006. The role of exogenous insulin in the complex of hepatic lipidosis and ketosis associated with insulin resistance phenomenon in postpartum dairy cattle. Veterinary Research Communications, 30: 749–774.
17- Holtenius, P, and K. Holtenius. 2007. A model to estimate insulin sensitivity in dairy cows. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica. 49: 29-31.
18- Huntington, G. B. 1997. Starch utilization by ruminants: From basics to the bunk. Journal of Animal Science, 75: 852–867.
19- Kerestes, M., V. Faigl., M. Kulcsar., O. Balogh., J. Foldi., H. Febel., Y. Chilliard, and G. Huszenicza. 2009. Periparturient insulin secretion and whole-body insulin responsiveness in dairy cows showing various forms of ketone pattern with or without puerperal metritis. Domestic Animal Endocrinology, 37: 250–261.
20- Legro, R. S., D. Finegood, and A. Dunaif. 1998. A fasting glucose to insulin ratio is a useful measure of insulin sensitivity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 83: 2694 –2698.
21- Lemosquet, S., E. Debras., M. Lebalage., J. France., O. Hocquette., H. Rulquin, and J. Grizard. 2002. Short-term mild hyperglycemia enhances insulinstimulated glucose disposal in lactating goats. American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 282: R464–R474.
22- Macrae, A. I., D. A. Whitaker., E. Burrough., A. Dowell, and J. M. Kelly. 2006. Use of metabolic profiles for the assessment of dietary adequacy in UK dairy herds. Veterinary Record, 159(20): 655–661.
23- Manns, J. G, and J. M. Boda. 1967. Insulin release by acetate, propionate, butyrate, and glucose in lambs and adult sheep. American Journal of Physiology, 212: 747-755.
24- Moriel P., T. S. Scatena., O. G. Sá Filho., R. F. Cooke, and J. L. M. Vasconcelos. 2008. Concentrations of progesterone and insulin in serum of nonlactating dairy cows in response to carbohydrate source and processing. Journal of Dairy Science, 91: 4616-4621.
25- Oba, M, and M. S. Allen. 2003. Effects of corn grain conservation method on feeding behavior and productivity of lactating dairy cows at two dietary starch concentrations. Journal of Dairy Science, 86:174–183.
26- Owens, F. N., R. A. Zinn, and Y. K. Kim. 1986. Limits to starch digestion in the ruminant small intestine. Journal of Animal Science, 63: 1634–1648.
27- Patton, R. S., C. E. Sorenson, and A. R. Hippen. 2004. Effects of dietary glucogenic precursors and fat on feed intake and carbohydrate status of transition dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 87: 2122–2129.
28- Perseghin, G., A. Caumo., M. Caloni., G. Testolin, and L. Luzi. 2001. Incorporationof the fasting plasma FFA concentration into quickiimproves its association with insulin sensitivity in non-obese individuals. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 86: 4776-4781.
29- Petterson, J. A., F. R. Dunshea., R. A. Ehrhardt, and A. W. Bell. 1993. Pregnancy and under nutrition alter glucose metabolic responses to insulin in sheep. Journal of Nutrition, 123: 1286–1295.
30- Pires, J. A. A., J. B. Pescara., A. E. Brickner., N. Silva del Rio., A. P. Cunha, and R. R. Grummer. 2008. Effects of abomasal infusion of linseed oil on responses to glucose and insulin in Holstein cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 91: 1378–1390
31- Pires, J. A. A., J. B. Pescara, and R. R. Grummer. 2007a. Reduction of plasma NEFA concentration by nicotinic acid enhances the response to insulin in feed-restricted Holstein cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 90: 4635–4642.
32- Pires, J. A. A., A. H. Souza, and R. R. Grummer. 2007b. Induction of hyperlipidemia by intravenous infusion of tallow emulsion causes insulin resistance in Holstein cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 90: 2735–2744.
33- Reynolds, C. K. 1992. Metabolism of nitrogenous compounds by ruminant liver. Journal of Nutrition, 122: 850-854.
34- Reynolds, C. K., S. B. Cammel., D. J. Humphries., D. E. Beever., J. D. Sutton, and J. R. Newbold. 2001. Effects of postrumen starch infusion on milk production and energy metabolism in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 84: 2250–2259.
35- SAS. 2005. Statistical Analysis System. Version 9.1 (release TS1M3). SAS Institute Inc, Cary, NC, USA.
36- Schoenberg, K. M., R. M. Ehrhardt, and T. R. Overton. 2012. Effects of plane of nutrition and feed deprivation on insulin responses in dairy cattle during late gestation. Journal of Dairy Science, 95: 670–682.
37- Stengärde, L. 2010. Displaced abomasum and ketosis in dairy cows (blood profiles and risk factors). PhD Thesis. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Department of Clinical Sciences, University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala. Swedish.
38- Turchiano, M., C. Nguyen, A. Fierman., M. Lifshitz, and A. Convit. 2013. Impact of blood sample collection and processing methods on glucose levels in community outreach studies. Journal of Environmental and Public Health, 2013: 1-4.
39- Vakili, A., A. Mortezaee., M. Danesh Mesgaran. 2011. The effect of glucogenic and lipogenic diets on blood metabolites of baloochi sheep. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 5: 2076-78.
40- Van Knegsel, A. T. M., H. Van den Brand., E. A. M. Graat., J. Dijkstra., R. Jorritsma., E. Decuypere., S. Tamminga, and B. Kemp. 2007. Dietary energy source in dairy cows in early lactation: metabolites and metabolic hormones. Journal of Dairy Science, 90: 1477–1485.
41- Van Knegsel, A. T. M., H. Van den Brand., J. Dijkstra., W. M. Van Straalen., M. J. W. Heetkamp., S. Tamminga, and B. Kemp. 2007b. Dietary energy source in dairy cows in early lactation: energy partitioning and milk composition. Journal of Dairy Science, 90: 1467–1476.
42- Van Knegsel, A. T. M., H. Van den Brand., J. Dijkstra., W. M. Van Straalen., R. Jorritsma., S. Tamminga, and B. Kemp. 2007. Effect of glucogenic vs. lipogenic diets on energy balance, blood metabolites, and reproduction in primiparous and multiparous dairy cows in early lactation. Journal of Dairy Science, 90: 3397–3409.
43- Van Knegsel, A. T. M., H. van den Brand., J. Dijkstra., S. Tamminga, and B. Kemp. 2005. Effect of dietary energy source on energy balance, production, metabolic disorders and reproduction in lactating dairy cattle. Reproduction Nutrition Development, 45: 665–688.
44- Van Soest, P. J., Robertson, J. B, and Lewis, B. A. 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and non - starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science, 74: 3593 -3597.
45- Vuguin, P., P. Saenger, and J. Dimartino-Nardi. 2001. Fasting glucose insulin ratio: a useful measure of insulin resistance in girls with premature adrenarche. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 86(10): 4618–4621.
46- Walker, J. A, and Harmon, D. L. 1995. Influence of ruminal or abomasal starch hydrolysate infusion on pancreatic exocrine secretion and blood glucose and insulin concentrations in steers. Journal Animal Science, 73(12): 3766-74.
ارجاع به مقاله
ناصریانع., ولی زادهر., & نصیریم. ر. (2017). اثر جیره¬های گلوکوژنیک و لیپوژنیک بر غلظت زیست نشانگرهای انرژی در سرم خون بره‌های ماده بلوچی. پژوهشهای علوم دامی ایران, 9(3), 269-283. https://doi.org/10.22067/ijasr.v9i3.36610
نوع مقاله
علمی پژوهشی - تغذیه نشخوارکنندگان