##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

علی مجدم مرتضی چاجی طاهره محمدآبادی صالح طباطبائی وکیلی

چکیده

این آزمایش به منظور بررسی گوارش پذیری و تخمیر خار مریم و تاثیر آن بر تخمیر و گوارش مواد فیبری (کاه گندم) و پروتئینی (کنجاله سویا) در گوسفند عربی تغذیه شده با جیره حاوی ذرت انجام پذیرفت. در این آزمایش از 12 راس گوسفند نر با میانگین وزن 22/1±37 کیلوگرم در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی استفاده شد. جیره‌های آزمایشی شامل، جیره شاهد (فاقد خارمریم) و جیره‌های مکمل شده با سطوح مختلف خارمریم (5، 10 و 20 گرم درصد ماده خشک) و طول مدت آزمایش 84 روز بود. در آزمایش دامی ماده خشک مصرفی، قابلیت‌هضم، pH مایع شکمبه، غلظت نیتروژن آمونیاکی مایع شکمبه و متابولیت های خونی اندازه گیری شدند. فراسنجه های تولیدگاز و قابلیت‌هضم آزمایشگاهی مواد مغذی کاه گندم و کنجاله سویا انکوبه شده با مایع شکمبه گوسفندان تغذیه شده با خارمریم نیز اندازه گیری شد. ماده خشک مصرفی، نیتروژن آمونیاکی شکمبه، هضم NDF، گلوکز و نیتروژن اوره‌ای خون در جیره‌های حاوی خارمریم کاهش معنی‌داری نسبت با شاهد داشت. اما قابلیت‌هضم ماده خشک و ADF جیره‌های آزمایشی تحت تاثیر سطوح مختلف خارمریم به صورت عددی افزایش یافت و pH کاهش غیر معنی‌داری نشان داد. جیره‌های حاوی گیاه خارمریم تاثیر منفی بر قابلیت‌هضم و پتانسیل تولیدگاز کاه و کنجاله سویا نداشتند. به طور کلی، نتایج مشخص نمود که استفاده از خارمریم تا سطح 200 گرم در کیلوگرم در جیره تاثیر منفی بر عملکرد و سلامت حیوان ندارد. همچنین افزودن خارمریم به جیره تاثیر منفی بر هضم مواد الیافی (کاه) و پروتئینی (کنجاله سویا) نداشت.

جزئیات مقاله

مراجع
1. Abdali-Mashhadi, A. R., and Gh. Fathi. 2002. The effect of different levels of density on yield and oil content of milk thistle in weather of Ahvaz. Pajouhesh and Sazandegi, 54 (2): 45-52. (In Persian).
2. Agrawal, S., and H. L. Bonkovsky. 2009. Management of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: an analytic review. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, 35: 253-61.
3. Allison, M. J., and C. A. Reddy. 1984. Adaptations of gastrointestinal bacteria in response to changes in dietary oxalate and nitrate. Page 248 in Proc. 3rd International Symposium on Microbial Ecology. Michigan State University, East Lansing.
4. Annassori, E., B. Dalir-Naghadeh, R. Pirmohammadi, A. Taghizadeh, S. Asri-Rezaei, M. Maham, S. Farahmand-Azar, and P. Farhoomand. 2011. A potential alternative for monnensin as rumen modifier. Livestock Science, 10:10-16.
5. AOAC International. 2012. Official Methods of Analysis.19th ed. AOAC International, Gaithersburg, MD.
6. Baluchnejad-mojarad, T., M. Roghani, and Z. Khaste khodaie. 2010. Evaluation of the effect of chronic administration of Silymarin on thermal and chemical hyperalgesia in an experimental model of diabetic neuropathy in male rats. Iranian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, 11 (5): 585-589. (In Persian).
7. Baptiste, Q. S. 2009. Effects of delayed fat supplementation on post-prandial rumen metabolism, lamb quality and fatty acid composition of rumen effluent. PhD Thesis. West Virginia University, USA.
8. Barry, T. N., and W. C. McNabb. 2002. The implications of condensed tannins on the nutritive value of temperate forages fed to ruminants. British Journal of Nutrition, 81: 263–272.
9. Benchaar, C., H. V. Petit, R. Berthiaume, T. D. Whyte, and P. Y. Chouinard. 2006. Effects of addition of essential oils and monensin premix on digestion, ruminal fermentation, milk production and milk composition in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 89:4352-4364.
10. Ben Salem, H., H. P. S. Makkar, A. Nefzaoui, L. Hassayoun, and S. Abidi. 2005. Benefit from the association of small amounts of tannin-rich shrub foliage (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl.) with soybean meal given as supplements to Barbarian sheep fed on oaten hay. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 122:173–186.
11. Bohm, H., H. Boeing, J. Hempel, B. Raab, and A. Kroke. 1998. Flavonols, flavone and anthocyanins as natural antioxidants of food and their possible role in the prevention of chronic diseases. Z Ernahrungswiss, 37(2):147-63.
12. Broderick, G. A., and J. H. Kang. 1980. Automated simultaneous determination of ammonia and total amino acids in ruminal fluid and in vitro media. Journal of Dairy Science, 63, 64–75.
13. Chaves, A. V., K. Stanford, M. E. R. Dugan, L. L. Gibson, T. A. McAllister, F. Van Herk, and C. Benchaar. 2008. Effects of cinnamaldehyde, garlic and juniper berry essential oils on rumen fermentation, blood metabolites, growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing lambs. Livestock Science, 117: 215-224.
14. Danesh Mesgaran, M. 1388. Advanced in vitro methods for animal science researches. Ferdowsi university of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran. (In Persian).
15. Dehority, B. A. 2004. Rumen microbiology. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data. First Published 12: 12–18.
16. Eryavuz, A., and B. A. Dehority. 2004. Effect of Yucca schidigera extract on the concentration of rumen microorganisms in sheep. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 117: 215-222.
17. Falah Hoseini, H., A. Hemati Moghadam, and M. Alavian. 2005. A review of Silybum marianum, a medicinal plant. Journal of Medical Plants, 11 (1): 14-24. (In Persian).
18. Fazaeli, H. 2012. Efficient use of agricultural by-products in ruminant nutrition. In 5th animal science congress. Esfahan, Iran. (In Persian).
19. Foroogh Ameri, N. 1997. Determination nutritional value and digestibility of dried and ensiled pistachios by-products (soft upper shell). MSc thesis. Esfahan University, Iran. (In Persian).
20. Frutos, P., G. Hervás, F. J. Giráldez, and A. R. Mantecón. 2004. Review Tannins and ruminant nutrition. Review. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, 2(2):191-202.
21. Ghahreman, A., and A. Florangi. 1983. Colored flora of Iran. Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands press. 9th ed. (In Persian).
22. Garcia-Gonzalez, R., S. Lopez, M. Fernandez, and J. S. Gonzalez. 2008. Dose-respones effects of Rheum officinal root and Frangula alnus brak on ruminal methane production in vitro. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 145: 319-334.
23. Getachew, G., H. P. S. Makkar, and K. Becker. 2000. Effect of polyethylene glycol on in vitro degradability and microbial protein synthesis from tannin-rich browse and herbaceous legumes. British Journal of Nutrition, 84: 73–83.
24. Godarzi, M., A. Nikkhah, A. Mirhadi, A. Sarabi, A. Haghdost, and J. Eftekharnejad. 2003. Clinoptilolite and chicory impact on performance and health fattened liver of Shal species. Pajouhesh and Sazandegi. 60: 70-76. (In Persian).
25. Harsini, M., M. Bojarpour, M. Eslami, M. Chaji, T. Mohammadabadi. 2013. The Effect of oak kernel on digestibility and fermentative characteristics in Arabi Sheep. Iranian Journal of Animal Science Research, 5 (2): 125-137. (In Persian).
26. Hart, K. J., D. R. Yanez–Ruiz, and S. M. Duval. 2007. Plant extracts to manipulate rumen fermentation. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 1016:1-28.
27. Hasanloo T., M. Bahmany, R. Sepehrifar, and F. Kalantary. 2007. Fatty acids composition in seeds of Silybium marianum (L.) Gaerth. In 3th Symposium of Medicinal Plants, Shahed University, Tehran. (In Persian).
28. Hassan Sallam, S. M. A., I. C. da Silva Bueno, P. B. de Godoy, F. N. Eduardo, D. M. S. Schmidt Vittib, and A. L. Abdalla. 2010. Ruminal fermentation and tannins bioactivity of some browses using a semi-automated gas production technique. Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems, 12: 1–10.
29. Hervás, G., F. Pilar Frutos, R. Javier Giráldez Ángel, C. Mantecón Mar´ıa, and P. Álvarez Del. 2000. Effect of different doses of quebracho tannins extract on rumen fermentation in ewes. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 109:65–78.
30. Hristov, A. N., M. Ivan, L. M. Rode, and T. A. McAllister. 2001. Fermentation characteristics and rumen ciliate protozoal populations in cattle fed medium or high barley based diets. Journal of Animal Science, 79: 515–524.
31. Makkar, H. P. S. 1995. Effects and fate of tannins in ruminant animals, adaptation to tannins, and strategies to overcome detrimental effects of feeding tannin-rich feeds. Small Ruminant Research, 49: 241–256.
32. Maldar, S. M. Y., and R. Alipour. 2010. The Effect of Adaptation to Oak leaves on digestibility (in vitro) and ruminal parameters in Alamout Goat. Iranian Journal of Animal Science, 43 (41): 243-252. (In Persian).
33. McAllister, T. A., H. D. Bae, L. J. Yanke, K. J. Cheng, and A. Muir. 1994. Effect of condensed tannins from birdsfoot trefoil on the endoglucanase activity and the digestion of cellulose filter paper by ruminal fungi. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 40: 298–305.
34. McDonald, P., R. J. F. D. Grinharld, C. A. Morgan, L. A. Sinclair, R. G. Wilkinson. 2010. Animal Nutrition. 17th ed. Pearson. Harlow, London, England.
35. McSweeney. C. S., B. Palmer, D. M. McNeill, and D. O. Krause. 2001. Microbial interactions with tannins: nutritional consequences for ruminants. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 91:83–93.
36. Menke, K. H., and H. Steingass. 1988. Estimation of the energetic feed value obtained from chemical analysis and in vitro gas production using rumen fluid. Animal research and development, 28:7-55.
37. Min, B. R., G. T. Attwood, K. Reilly, W. Sun, J. S. Peters, T. N. Barry, and W. C. McNabb. 2002. Lotus corniculatus condensed tannins decrease in vivo populations of proteolytic bacteria and affect nitrogen metabolism in the rumen of sheep. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 48: 911–921.
38. Newbold, C. J., F. M. McIntosh, P. Williams, R. Losa, and R. J. Wallace. 2004. Effects of a specific blend of essential oil compounds on rumen fermentation. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 114 (1-4): 105-112.
39. NRC, 2007. Nutritional requirements of small ruminants. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., USA.
40. Nunez-Hernandez, G., J. D. Wallace, J. L. Holechek, M. L. Galyean, and M. Cardenas. 1991. Condensed tannins and nutrient utilization by lambs and goats fed low-quality diets. Journal of Animal Science, 69:1167-1177.
41. Omidbeygi, R., 2007. Production and processing of medicinal herbs. Vol 2. Astan Qods Razavi press, Mashhad, Iran. (In Persian).
42. Ørskov, E. R., and I. McDonald. 1979. The estimation of protein degradability in the rumen from incubation measurements weighted according to rate of passage. Journal of Agricultural Science (Cambridge), 92:499- 503.
43. Palmquist, D. L. 1991. Influence of source and amount of dietary fat on digestibility in lactating cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 74:1354.
44. Patra, A. K., and Z. Yu. 2012. Effects of essential oils on methane production, fermentation abundance and diversity of rumen microbial populations. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 78: 4271-4280.
45. Pfister, J. A. 1988. Nitrate intoxication of ruminant livestock. Page 233 in The Ecology and Economic Impact of Poisonous Plants on Livestock Production. L. F. James, ed. Westview Press, Boulder, Co.
46. Ramezani, M., M. Azarabadi, and H. Falahhoseini. 2006. Study the therapeutic effect of Silybum marianum seed extract on blood sugar reduction in second type diabetes disease. Journal of Medicinal Plants, 26 (7): 79-84. (In Persian).
47. Reid, C., J. Edwards, M. Wang, Y. Manybeads, L. Mike, N. Martinez, L. La Grange, and E. Reyes. 1999. Prevention by a Milk thistle phospholipid compound of ethanol-induced social learning deficits in rats. Planta Medica, 65: 421-4.
48. SAS Users Guide: Statistics. 1999. Version 8.2. SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC
49. Schulz, V., R. Hansel, and V. E. Tyler. 1997. Rational Phytotherapy: A Physician's guide to herbal medicine. Springer, Berlin, Germany.
50. Tilley, J. M., and R. A. Terry. 1963. A two stage technique for the in vitro digestion of forage crops. Journal of the British Grassland Society, 18: 104-111.
51. Vahmani, P. 2005. Chemical composition, degradability and gastrointestinal disappearance of pistachio by-products and its utilization in diets of mid-lactation dairy cow. MSc thesis. Ferdowsi University, Iran. (In Persian).
52. Van Soest, P. J., J. B. Robertson, and B. A. Lewis. 1991. Methods of dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science, 74: 3583–3597.
53. Yanez Ruiz, D. R., A. Moumen, A. I. Mart´ın Garc´ıa, and E. Molina Alcaide. 2004. Ruminal fermentation and degradation patterns, protozoa population, and urinary purine derivatives excretion in goats and wethers fed diets based on two-stage olive cake: effect of PEG supply. Journal of Animal Science, 82: 2023–2032.
54. Yang, W. Z., C. A. Benchaar, B. N. metaj, A. V. Chaves, M. L. He, and T. A. Mcallister. 2007. Effect of Cichoium intybus essential oils on ruminal fermentation and on the site extent of digestion in lactating cow. Journal of Dairy Science, 90: 5671-5681.
55. Yildiz, S., I. Kaya, Y. Unal, D. Aksu Elmali, S. Kaya, M. Cenesiz, M. Kaya, and A. Oncuer. 2005. Digestion and body weight change in Tuj lambs receiving oak (Quercus hartwissiana) leaves with and without PEG. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 122: 159-172.
56. Yokozawa, T., A. Ishida, E. J. Cho, and T. Nakagawa. 2003. The effects of Coptidis rhizoma extract on a hypercholesterolemic animal model. Phytomedicine, 10 (1): 17-22.
57. Zare Kia, S., O. Baigi. 2006. Autecology of Milk thistle (Silybum marianum) in Behdasht Region of Noor. Iranian Journal of Medical and Aromatic Plants,12 (2):135-139. (In Persian).
58. Zargari, A. 1996. Medicinal Plants. Vol 3. 6th ed. Tehran University press, Tehran, Iran. (In Persian).
ارجاع به مقاله
مجدم ع., چاجی م., محمدآبادی ط., & طباطبائی وکیلی ص. (2015). ارزش تغذیه‌ای گیاه خار مریم برای گوسفند و تاثیر آن بر هضم مواد فیبری و پروتئینی. پژوهشهای علوم دامی ایران, 7(3), 267-277. https://doi.org/10.22067/ijasr.v7i3.34753
نوع مقاله
علمی پژوهشی - تغذیه نشخوارکنندگان

مقالات بیشتر خوانده شده از همین نویسنده